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Английский для русскоязычных золотодобытчиков

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    Professor Abrol Kakharov Glossary [Аброл Кахаров]
      Gold mining has a storied and often checkered history of rushes, booms, contraband and conflict  
      У золотодобычи есть легендарная и часто изменчивая история лихорадок, бума, контрабанды и конфликтов
       Gold In nature.
     In nature, gold occurs, usually in the native form. Often it contains impurities of silver, copper and bismuth.
    Silver content sometimes up to several tens of percent. Depending on the impurities gold is light yellow, reddish, greenish.
    Natural gold can be finely divided, the size of its particles do not exceed 0,005 mm, pulverized - particle size 0.005-0.05 mm fine - 0,005-2 mm and large,
    that is, more than 2 mm. There are two main types of gold deposits: Indigenous and alluvial (placer).
    Primary deposits are usually formed from hot underground water heated by magmatic centers.
    They (the fields) are in the form of various milk-white quartz veins occurring in granite, marble, limestone, sandstone and other rocks.
     A placer deposit or is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation during sedimentary processes.
    Types of placer deposits include: eluvium, alluvium, beach placers, and paleoplasers.
    A gold nugget is a naturally occurring piece of nativ gold Watercourses often concentrate nuggets and finer gold
     Nuggets are also found in the tailings piles of previous mining operations, especially those left by gold mining dredges.
    Nuggets are gold fragments weathered out of an original lode.
    They often show signs of abrasive polishing by stream action, and sometimes still contain Nuggets are usually 20K to 22K purity (83% to 92%).inclusions of quartz or other lode matrix material
    Mining  [Abrol Kakharov]
    Abandoned mine - Заброшенная шахта
    Acidic precipitation - Кислотный дождь Snow and rain that have a low pH, caused by sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide gases from industrial activity into the atmosphere.
    Abrupt - Крутой, обрывистый
    Across - Поперёк, по простиранию; в крест простирания
    Access - Доступ, подход Access to the ore body - Вскрытие рудного тела
    Achieve-Достигать, выполнять
    Asguire -Приобретать, достигать, овладевать(Навыки)
    Adjust - Урегулировать, Adjustment -регулирование, сборка, наладка, монтаж.
    Acidic rocks - Кислая порода Igneous rock carrying a ( 65%) proportion of silica.
    Acid mine drainage - Кислые стоки Acidic run-off water from mine waste dumps and mill tailings ponds containing sulphide minerals.
    Adit - (Штольня. Квершлаг) An opening driven horizontally into the side of a mountain or hill for providing access to a mineral deposit.
    Agglomeration - Метод скомкования. A method of concentrating valuable minerals based on their adhesion properties.
    Agitation - Перемешивание In metallurgy, the act or state of being stirred or shaken mechanically, sometimes accomplished by the introduction .
    Alluvium - Наносный Relatively recent deposits of sedimentary material laid down in river beds, flood plains, lakes, or at the base of mountain slopes. Alluvial)
    Alteration - Изменение Any physical or chemical change in a rock or mineral subsequent to its formation. Milder and more localized than metamorphism.
    Amalgama - substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Amalgamation - Амальгамация extaction jf gold from ore.
    Amorphous - Аморфный A term applied to rocks or minerals that possess no definite crystal structure or form, such as amorphous carbon.
    Amortization - Амортизация The gradual and systematic writing off of a balance in an account over an appropriate period.
    ANFO - ВВ, Взрывчатые вещества и материалы. Acronym for ammonium nitrate and fuel oil, a mixture used as a blasting agent in many mines.
    Annual report - Текуший отчёт The formal financial statements and report on operations issued by a corporation to its shareholders after its fiscal year-end.
    Anomaly - Any departure from the norm which may indicate the presence of mineralization in the underlying bedrock.
    Anticline - An arch or fold in layers of rock shaped like the crest of a wave.
    Arsenic - Мышьяк A natural element that can be found distributed throughout the Earth"s crust. It is found in arsenopyrite, the same rock in which gold is often embedded.
    Assets-Активы, фонды, имущества.
    Assay - Анализ проб A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount of valuable metals contained.
    Assay map - План опробования Plan view of an area indicating assay values and locations of all samples taken on the property.
    Assessment work - Оценивание The amount of work, specified by mining law, that must be performed each year in order to retain legal control of mining claims.
    Backfill - Вмещающая порода Waste material used to fill the void created by mining.
    Balance sheet - Балансовый отчёт A formal statement of the financial position of a company on a particular day, normally presented to shareholders once a year.
    Ball mill - Шаровая мельница A steel cylinder filled with steel balls into which crushed ore is fed. The ball mill is rotated, causing the balls to cascade and grind the ore.
    Bio-leaching - Биовыщелачивание A process for recovering metals from low-grade ores by dissolving them in solution, the dissolution being aided by bacterial action.
    Blaster - Взрывник A mine employee responsible for loading, and detonating.
    Bulk sample-Крупно-валовая проба A large sample of mineralized rock, frequently hundreds of tons, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Used to determine metallurgical characteristics.
    Carbon-in-pulp - Уголь в пульпе A method of recovering gold and silver from pregnant cyanide solutions by adsorbing the precious metals to granules of activated carbon, which are typically ground up coconut shells.
    Cash flow - Денежный поток The net of the inflow and outflow of cash during an accounting period. Does not account for depreciation or bookkeeping write-offs which do not involve an actual cash outlay.
    Cathode - Катод A rectangular plate of metal, produced by electrolytic refining, which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots, etc.
    Change house-АБК The mine building where workers change into work clothes;"dry".
    Channel sample - Бороздовое опробование A sample composed of pieces of vein or mineral deposit that have been cut out of a small trench or channel about 10 cm wide and 2 cm deep.
    Claim - заявка на отвод участка A portion of land held either by a prospector or a mining company. In Canada, the common size is 1,320 ft. about 400m square, or 40 acr.
    Clarification - Очистка Process of clearing dirty water by removing material.
    Classifier - Класификатор A mineral-processing machine which separates minerals according to size and density.
    Clay - Глина A fine-grained material composed of hydrous aluminum silicates.
    Closed circuit - Циркуляция A loop in the milling process wherein a selected portion of the product of a machine is returned to the head of the machine.
    Complex ore - Комплексная руда An ore containing a number of minerals of economic value. The term often implies that there are metallurgical difficulties the valuable metals.
    Concentrate - Концентрат A fine, powdery product of the milling process containing a high percentage of valuable metal.
    Contact metamorphism - Контактный метоморфизм Metamorphism of country rocks adjacent to an intrusion, caused by heat from the intrusion.
    Core - Керн The long cylindrical piece of rock, about an inch in diamond drilling.
    Crosscut - Квершлаг A horizontal opening driven from a shaft and (or near) right angles to the strike of a vein or other orebody.
    Custom smelter - A smelter which processes concentrates from independent mines.
    Cyanidation - Цианарование A method of extracting exposed gold or silver grains from crushed or ground ore by dissolving it in a weak cyanide solution. May be carried out in tanks inside a mill or in heaps of ore out of doors.
    Cyanide - Цианид A chemical species containing carbon and nitrogen used to dissolve gold and silver from ore.
    Deck - Шахтный двор The area around the shaft collar where men and materials enter the cage to be lowered underground.
    Decline - Наклонная выработка A sloping underground opening for machine access from level to level or from surface; also called a ramp.
    Development - Вскрытие м-ния Underground work carried out for the purpose of opening up a mineral deposit. Includes shaft sinking, crosscutting, drifting and raising.
    Diamond drill - Алмазное бурение A rotary type of rock drill that cuts a core of rock that is recovered in long cylindrical sections, two cm or more in diameter.
    Dilution (mining) - Разубоживание руды Rock that is, by necessity, removed along with the ore in the mining process, subsequently lowering the grade of the ore.
    Dip - Падение The angle at which a vein, structure or rock bed is inclined from the horizontal as measured at right angles to the strike.
    Drift - Штрек A horizontal underground opening that follows along the length of a vein or rock formation as opposed to a crosscut which crosses the rock formation.
    Due diligence - ТЭД The degree of care and caution required before making a decision; loosely, a financial and technical investigation.
    Dump - Породный отвал A pile of broken rock or ore on surface.
    Dyke - Дайка A long and relatively thin body of igneous rock that, while in the molten state, intruded a fissure in older rocks.
    Erosion - Эрозия The breaking down and subsequent removal of either rock or surface material by wind, rain, wave action, freezing and thawing and other processes.
    Exploration - Геолого-разведка Prospecting, sampling, mapping, diamond drilling and other work involved in searching for ore.
    Fault - Разлом A break in the Earth's crust caused by tectonic forces which have moved the rock on one side with respect to the other.
    Flotation - Флотация A milling process in which valuable mineral particles are induced to become attached to bubbles and float as others sink.
    Flowsheet - Илюстрация An illustration showing the sequence of operations, step by step, by which ore is treated in a milling, concentration or smelting process.
    Flux - Флюс A chemical substance that reacts with gangue minerals to form slags, which are liquid at furnace temperature and low enough in density to float on the molten bath of metal.
    Footwall - Лежачий бок The rock on the underside of a vein or ore structure.
    Galena - Галенит Lead sulphide, the most common ore mineral of lead.
    Geochemistry - Геохимия The study of the chemical properties of rocks.
    Geology - Геология The science concerned with the study of the rocks, the Earth.
    Glacial drift - Ледник Sedimentary material that has been transported by glaciers.
    Grab sample - Отбор проб A sample from a rock outcrop that is assayed to determine if valuable elements are contained in the rock.
    Granite - Гранит A coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock consisting of quartz and feldspar
    Grizzly (or mantle) - Грохота A grating, usually constructed of steel rails, placed over the top of a chute or ore pass for the purpose of stopping large pieces of rock .
    Head grade - Ср.содержание питания The average grade of ore fed into a mill.
    Heap leaching - Кучное выщелачивание A process whereby valuable metals, usually gold and silver, are leached from a heap, or pad, of crushed ore by leaching solutions percolating down
    through the heap and collected from a sloping, impermeable liner below the pad.
    Hedging - Определения риска Taking a buy or sell position in a futures market opposite to a position held in the cash market to minimize the risk of financial loss .
    High grade - Высокое содержание руды Rich ore. As a verb, it refers to selective mining of the best ore in a deposit.
    Host rock - Вмешающая порода The rock surrounding an ore deposit.
    Hydrometallurgy - Гидрометаллургия The treatment of ore by wet processes, such as leaching, resulting in the solution of a metal and its subsequent recovery.
    Igneous rocks - Магматическая парода Rocks formed by the solidification of molten material from far below the earth's surface.
    Industrial minerals - Промышленные минералы Non-metallic, non-fuel minerals used in the chemical and manufacturing industries. Examples are asbestos, gypsum, salt, graphite, mica, gravel, building stone and talc.
    Intrusive - Интрузия A body of igneous rock formed by the consolidation of magma intruded into other rocks, in contrast to lavas, which are extruded upon the surface.
    Jaw crusher - Щековая дробилка A machine in which rock is broken by the plates.
    Jig - Отсадочна машина A piece of milling equipment used to concentrate ore on a screen submerged in water, either by the reciprocating motion of the screen or by the pulsation of water
    Lava - Лава A general name for the molten rock ejected by volcanoes.
    Leaching - Растворение A chemical process for the extraction of valuable minerals from ore; also, a natural process by which ground waters dissolve minerals, thus leaving the rock with
    a smaller proportion of some of the minerals than it contained originally.
    Lens - Линза Generally used to describe a body of ore that is thick in the middle and tapers towards the ends.
    Level - Уровень The horizontal openings on a working horizon in a mine; it is customary to work mines from a shaft, establishing levels at regular intervals.
    Limestone - Известняк A bedded, sedimentary deposit consisting of calciy, carbonate.
    Lode - Месторождение A mineral deposit in solid rock.
    Magma - Магма The molten material deep in the Earth from which rocks are formed.
    Magnetic separation - Способ обогащения A process in which a magnetically susceptible mineral is separated from gangue minerals by applying a strong magnetic field;
    ores of iron are commonly treated in this way.
    Magnetite - Магнетит Black, magnetic iron ore, an iron oxide.
    Map-staking - Карта столбления A form of claim-staking practised in some jurisdictions whereby claims are staked by drawing lines around the claim.
    Marble - Мрамор A metamorphic rock derived from the recrystallization of limestone under intense heat and pressure.
    Matte - Штейн A product of a smelter, containing metal and some sulphur, which must be refined further to obtain pure metal.
    Metallurgy - Металлургия The study of extracting metals from their ores.
    Metamorphism - Метаморфизм The process by which the form or structure of rocks is changed by heat and pressure.
    Mill - Фабрика A plant in which ore is treated and metals are recovered or prepared for smelting;
    Milling ore - Измельчение руды Ore that contains sufficient valuable mineral to be treated by milling process.
    Minable reserves - Извлекаемые запасы Ore reserves that are known to be extractable using a given mining plan.
    Muck - Отбитая порода Ore or rock that has been broken by blasting.
    Nugget - Самородок A small mass of precious metal, found free in nature.
    Open pit - Карьер A mine that is entirely on surface. Also referred to as open-cut.
    Ore - Руда A mixture of ore minerals and gangue from which at least one of the metals can be extracted at a profit.
    Ore pass - Рудоспуск Vertical or inclined passage for the downward transfer of ore connecting a level with the hoisting shaft or a lower level.
    Orebody - Рудное тело A natural concentration of valuable material that can be extracted and sold at a profit.
    Ore Reserves - Запасы руды The calculated tonnage and grade of mineralization which can be extracted profitably; classified as possible,
    probable and proven according to the level of confidence that can be placed in the data.
    Oreshoot - Балансовый блок The portion, or length, of a vein or other structure that carries sufficient valuable minerals to be extracted profitably.
    Outcrop - Обнажение An exposure of rock or mineral deposit that can be seen on surface, that is, not covered by soil or water.
    Oxidation - Окисление A chemical reaction caused by exposure to oxygen that results in a change in the chemical composition of a mineral.
    Pan - Лоток To wash gravel, sand or crushed rock samples in order to isolate gold or other valuable metals by their higher density.
    Patent - Патент The ultimate stage of holding a mineral claim, after which no more assessment work is necessary because all mineral rights have been earned.
    Pillar - Целик A block of solid ore or other rock left in place to structurally support the shaft, walls or roof of a mine.
    Placer - Россыпи A deposit of sand and gravel containing valuable metals (gold)
    Plant - Фабрика, завод A building or group of buildings in which a process or function is carried out;
    at a mine site it will include warehouses, hoisting equipment, compressors, maintenance shops, offices and the mill or concentrator.
    Portal - Устье The surface entrance to a tunnel or adit.
    Possible reserves - Вероятные запасы Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate its tonnage and grade. Also called "inferred reserves."
    Primary deposits - Первичные руды Valuable minerals deposited during the original period or periods of mineralization, as opposed to those deposited as a result of alteration or weathering.
    Probable reserves - Прогнозные запасы Valuable mineralization not sampled enough to accurately estimate the terms of tonnage and grade-called "indicated reserves."
    Profit and loss statement - Прибыль и издержки The income statement of a company detailing revenues minus total costs to give total profit.
    Prospect - Площадь разведки A mining property, the value of which has not been determined by exploration.
    Proven reserves - Доказанные запасы Reserves that have been sampled extensively by closely spaced diamond drill holes and developed by underground workings in sufficient detail to render an accurate estimation of grade and tonnage.
    Also called "measured reserves."
    Pulp - Пульпы Pulverized or ground ore in solution.
    Pyrite - Пирит A yellow iron sulphide mineral, normally of little value. It is sometimes referred to as "fool's gold".
    Quartz - Кварц Common rock-forming mineral consisting of silicon and oxygen.
    Quartzite - Кварцит A metamorphic rock formed by the transformation of a sandstone by heat and pressure.
    Raise - Восстающий A vertical or inclined underground working that has been excavated from the bottom upward.
    Rake - Уклон The trend of an orebody along the direction of its strike.
    Rare earth elements - Relatively scarce minerals such as niobium and yttrium.
    Reclamation - Востановление The restoration of a site after mining.
    Recovery - Извлечение The percentage of valuable metal in the ore that is recovered by metallurgical treatment.
    Refractory ore - Упорные руды Ore that resists the action of chemical reagents in the normal treatment processes and which may require pressure leaching or other means to effect the full recovery of the valuable minerals.
    Resource - Ресурсы The calculated amount of material, based on limited drill information.
    Run-of-mine - Пром. минимум A term used loosely to describe ore of average grade.
    Room-and-pillar mining - Камерно-столбовая сиситема A method of mining flat-lying ore deposits in which the mined-out area, are separated by pillars of the same size.
    Sample - Проба A small portion of rock or a mineral deposit taken so that the metal content can be determined by assaying.
    Sampling - Опробование Selecting a fractional but representative part of deposit.
    Sandstone - Песчанник A sedimentary rock consisting of grains of sand together.
    Schist - Сланец A foliated metamorphic rock the grains of which have a roughly parallel arrangement; generally developed by shearing.
    Sedimentary rocks - Осадочная порода. Secondary rocks formed from material derived from other rocks and laid down under water. Examples are lime and sandstone.
    Shaft - Шахта A vertical or inclined excavation in rock for the purpose of providing access to an orebody. Usually equipped with a hoist at the top, which lowers and raises a conveyance for handling workers and materials.
    Shear zone - Вмещающая зона A zone in which shearing has occurred on a large scale.
    Silica - Кремний Silicon dioxide. Quartz is a common example.
    Skarn - Скарн Name for the metamorphic rocks surrounding an igneous intrusive where it comes in contact with a limestone or dolostone formation.
    Sodium cyanide-Цианид натр. A chemical used in the milling of ores to dissolve gold.
    Strike - по восстанию The direction, or bearing from true north, of a vein or rock formation measureon a horizontal surface.
    Strip - Вскрышные работы To remove the overburden or waste rock overlying an orebody in preparation for mining by open pit methods.
    Stripping ratio - Коэфициент вскрыши The ratio of tonnes removed as waste relative to the number of tonnes of ore removed from an open-pit mine.
    Sublevel - Под этажные выработки A level or working horizon in a mine between main working levels.
    Sulphide dust explosions - Взрыв сульфидной пыли An underground mining hazard involving thespontaneous combustion of airborne dust containing sulphide minerals.
    Sulphur dioxide - Двуокись серы A gas liberated during the smelting of most sulphide ores; either converted into sulphuric acid or released into the atmosphere.
    Sustainable development - Устойчивое развитие Industrial development that does not detract from the potential of the natural environment to provide benefits to future generations.
    Tailing - Хвосты Material rejected from a mill after most of the recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted. Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens.
    Tailings pond - Хвостохранилище A low-lying depression used to confine tailings,
    the prime function of which is to allow enough time for heavy metals to settle out or for cyanide to be destroyed before water is discharged into the local watershed.
    Talus - Отвал A heap of broken, coarse rock found at the base of a cliff or mountain.
    Thickener - Сгуститель A large tank used in milling operations to separate solids from liquids; clear fluid overflows from the tank and rock particles sink to the bottom.
    Trench - Траншея A long, narrow excavation dug through overburden, or blasted out of rock, to expose a vein or ore structure.
    Tube mill - An apparatus consisting of a revolving cylinder about half-filled with steel
    Tunnel - A horizontal underground opening, open to the atmosphere at both ends.
    Underbed - underlayer - Простирание
    Vein - Жила A fissure, fault or crack in a rock filled by minerals that have travelled upwards from some deep source.
    Visible gold - Видимое золото Native gold which is discernible, in a hand specimen, to the unaided eye.
    Volcanic rocks - Вулканическая порода Igneous rocks formed from magma that has flowed out or has been violently ejected from a volcano.
    Wall rocks - Боковые породы Rock units on either side of an orebody. The hangingwall and footwall rocks of an orebody.
    Waste - Порода Unmineralized, or lesmineralized, rock that is not minable at a profit.
    Winze - Слепой ствол An internal shaft.
    Zone - Рудная зона An area of distinct mineralization.
    Zone of oxidation - Зона окисления The upper portion of an orebody that has been oxidized.
    Au. [Аброл Кахаров]Золотодобывающие страны мира [Аброл Кахаров]
    Активы (Assets)
    Акции (Shares)
    Амортизация (Depreciation) .
    Аренда (Lease)
    Баланс (Balance)
    Безнадежные долги (Bad Debts)
    Бухгалтерия (Bookkeeping)
    Бюджет (Budget)
    Валовой (Gross)
    Денежные средства (Cash)
    Дефицит (Deficit)
    Долг (Debt)
    Доход, прибыль (Profit)
    Заем (Loan)
    Задолженность (Payable)
    Закладная (Mortgage)
    Инвестиции (Invest)
    Капитал (Capital)
    Капитальные затраты (Capital Expenditure)
    Контракт (Contract)
    Корпорация (Corporation)
    Коэффициент (Ratio)
    Кредит (Credit)
    Ликвидация (Liquidation)
    Маржа прибыльности (Profit Margin)
    Маркетинг (Marketing)
    Менеджмент (Management)
    Начисленные амортизационные отчисления (Accumulated Depreciation)
    Невыполнение обязательств (Default)
    Нераспределенная прибыль (Retained Earnings)
    Нетто, чистый доход (Net)
    Объем (Volume)
    Обязательства (Liability)
    Оптовая торговля (Wholesale)
    Основная сумма, капитал, принципал (Principal)
    Основной капитал (Fixed Assets)
    Отчет о прибылях и убытках, отчет о доходах и затратах (Income Statement, Profit and Loss Statement)
    Переменные затраты (Variable expenses)
    План (Plan)
    Подлежащий получению, дебиторская задолженность (Receivable)
    Показатели возвратности займов (Rate of Return)
    Постоянные издержки (Fixed Expenses)
    Постоянные накладные расходы (Fixed Overhead)
    Поток наличности (Cash Flow)
    Предприниматель (Entrepreneur)
    Прибыль на инвестированный капитал (Return on Investment)
    Прямые затраты (Direct Expenses)
    Розничная торговля (Retail)
    Собственный капитал (Equity Capital)
    Ссудный процент (Interest)
    Стоимость реализованной продукции (Cost of Goods Sold)
    Страхование обязательств (Liability Insurance)
    Текущие активы. Оборотный капитал (Current Assets)
    Текущие пассивы. Текущие обязательства (Current Liabilities)
    Текущие расходы (Operating Costs)
    Товар (Merchandize)
    Товарищество, партнерство (Partnership)
    Товарищество с ограниченной ответственностью (Limited Partnership)
    Точка безубыточности (Break-Even Point)
    Требование (Demand)
    Условия продажи (Terms of Sale)
    Устав корпорации (Articles of Incorporation)
    Финансирование (Financing)
    Финансовые отчеты (Financial Statement)
    Франшиза (Франчайзер, франчайзи) (Franchise, franchisor, franchisee)
    Ценообразование (Pricing)
    Ставить справедливость выше политики-to place justice above politics
    Добиться справедливости - obtain justice
    Право справедливости - law of equity
    Справедливость - equity, right, justice
    Справедливость - correctness, validity
    Fraud - обман; мошенничество, жульничество; подделка
    First, Fraud
    Buying scrap gold (old jewellery) for only half or less of the gold price can be considered as fraud.
    Another way of fraud is selling gold numismatic coins at prices which highly surpass the material and collector"s value. The victims are often old people who can easily be tricked into this business deal.
    Second, Misrepresentation
    Imagine, a bank sells gold which the buyer never physically receives, but which is stored in the bank"s vault.
    The bank further charges the gold owner storage fees. So fine so good. Let"s now assume the owner of the precious metal insists on seeing the gold.
    Now it is discovered that the bank never actually possessed the gold. How would one call the bank that asked for storage fees of something it never stored?
    Third, Market Manipulation
    The last gold scam is market manipulation as this action tries to distort the market equilibrium.
    Мошенничество первое
    Золотоскупка старых драгоценных изделий за половинную или меньшую стоимость золотого содержания можно рассмотреть как мошенничество.
    Другой способ мошенничества - продажа золотых нумизматических монет по ценам, чрезвычайно завышенным от истинной стоимости материала коллекционера.
    Жертвами, зачастую могут стать - старики, которых легко обмануть в этой коммерческой сделке.
    Заблуждение второе
    Представьте банк, который продает золото покупателю, которое физически не существует, но якобы находиться в хранилище банка. Банк взыскивает сборы за хранение золота владельца.
    Это настолько хорошо, насколько прекрасно.
    Давайте теперь представим, что владелец драгоценного металла настаивает на том, чтобы посмотреть на своё золото.
    Тогда обнаруживается, что банк никогда фактически не имел это золото.
    Как можно было бы назвать банк, который взыскивал сборы за хранение того, что он никогда не хранил?
    Третье: махинации рынка
    Последнее золотое жульничество - махинационные действия рынка, искажающие равновесие рынка.
      The History of Gold Mining--- Первобытные золотоискатели [Аброл Кахаров]
      It is impossible to know the exact date that humans first began to mine gold, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolic in Bulgaria.
      The graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 7000 years old.
    Gold has a widespread occurrence in practically every country of the world and has influenced the exploration and settlement of most.
    In Africa, Europe, and Asia ancient gold mines are known in Egypt, Spain, France, Great Britain, Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, China, Japan, and the USSR.
    Ancient placers have yielded gold from the rivers Tagus, Guadalquivir, Tiber, Po, Rhone, Rhine, Hebrus (Maritsa), Nile, Zambezi, Niger, Senegal, Pactolus (in ancient Lydia),
    Oxus (Amu Darya that flows through the golden land of Samarkand), Indus, Ganges, Lena, Aldan, Amur, Yangtze, and a multitude of others.
    The artisans of the earliest civilizations of Anatolia (Catal Hijyilk), Mesopotamia (Sumer), and the Indus Valley (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro) worked in gold obtained from many sites
    in the Caucasus and Middle Asia, the Middle East, and the Indian Peninsula. The Egyptians mined gold extensively in eastern Egypt and Sudan (Nubia) as far back as 4,000 years ago.
      It was from them that the Persians, Greeks, and Romans in turn learned the techniques of gold prospecting, mining, and metallurgy. The Greeks and Romans mined gold ores from the extensive metalliferous regions of their empires.
      Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79) in his Historia naturalist written in the early years of our era, repeatedly mentions the mining and metallurgy of gold, and during the Renaissance Agricola referred to it, as had many others before him during the Middle Ages.
      4000 B.C. A culture, centered in what is today Eastern Europe, begins to use gold to fashion decorative objects. The gold was probably mined in the Transylvanian Alps or the Mount Pangaion area in Thrace.
    3000 B.C. The Sumer civilization of southern Iraq uses gold to create a wide range of jewelry, often using sophisticated and varied styles still worn today.
       2500 B.C. Gold jewelry is buried in the Tomb of Djer, king of the First Egyptian Dynasty, at Abydos, Egypt.
      1500 B.C. The immense gold-bearing regions of Nubia make Egypt a wealthy nation, as gold becomes the recognized standard medium of exchange for international trade.
      The Shekel, a coin originally weighing 11.3 grams of gold, becomes a standard unit of measure in the Middle East.
    It contained a naturally occurring alloy called electrum that was approximately two-thirds gold and one-third silver.
    Египетские ценности [Интернет]Категория запасов [Аброл Кахаров]
      1350 B.C. The Babylonians begin to use fire assay to test the purity of gold.
      1200 B.C. The Egyptians master the art of beating gold into leaf to extend its use, as well as alloying it with other metals for hardness and color variations.
    They also start casting gold using the lost-wax technique that today is still at the heart ofwelry making.
    Unshorn sheepskin is used to recover gold dust from river sands on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. slucing the sands through the sheepskins, theyare dried and shaken out to dislodge the gold particles.
      The practice is most likely the inspiration for the "Golden Fleece".
      1091 B.C. Little squares of gold are legalized in China as a form of money.
      560 B.C. The first coins made purely from gold are minted in Lydia.
      344 B.C. Alexander the Great crosses the Hellespont with 40,000 men, beginning one of the most extraordinary campaigns in military history and seizing vast quantities of gold from the Persian Empire.
      On July 21, 356 Alexander the Great Александр Македонский [Аброл Кахаров]
    asked submitted to bury him with open palms. Today to it it would be executed 2368.
      300 B.C. Greeks and Jews of ancient Alexandria begin to practice alchemy, the quest of turning base metals into gold.
      218 B.C. -202 B.C. During the second Punic War with Carthage, the Romans gain access to the gold mining region of Spain and recover gold through stream gravels and hardrock mining.
      58 B.C. After a victorious campaign in Gaul, Julius Caesar brings back enough
      gold to give 200 coins to each of his soldiers and repay all of Rome"s debts. 
      50 B.C. Romans begin issuing a gold coin called the Aureus.
      476 A.D. The Goths depose Emperor Romulas Aug ustus, marking the fall of the Roman Empire.
      600 A.D. -699 A.D. The Byzantine Empire resumes gold mining in central Europe and France, an area untouched since the fall of the Roman Empire.
      742 A.D. -814 A.D. Charlemagne overruns the Avars and plunders their vast quantities of gold, making it possible for him to take control over much of western Europe.
      1020 A.D. - 1046 AD Al-Biruni made contributions to Earth sciences and is regarded as the "father of mineralogy" for his important contributions to that field, along with his significant contributions to geography.
      1066 A.D. -With the Norman conquest, a metallic currency standard is finally re established in Great Britain with the introduction of a system of pounds, shillings, and pence. The pound is literally a pound of sterling silver.
      1250 A.D. -1299 A.D. Marco Polo writes of his travels to the Far East, where the "gold wealth was almost unlimited.
      1284 A.D. Venice introduces the gold Ducat, which soon becomes the most popular coin in the world and remains so for more than five centuries.
      1377 A.D. Great Britain shifts to a monetary system based on gold and silver.
      1511 A.D. King Ferdinand of Spain says to explorers, "Get gold, humanely if you can, but all hazards, get gold," launching massive expeditions to the newly
      discovered lands of the Western Hemisphere 
      1556 A.D. Georgius Agricola, known as "the father of mineralogy" publishes "De re Metallica", which describes the fire assay of gold during the Middle Ages.
      1700 A.D. Gold is discovered in Brazil, which becomes the largest producer of gold by
      1720, with nearly twothirds of the world"s output. Isaac Newton, as Master of the Mint, fixes the price of gold in Great Britain at 84 shillings, 11 & ½ pence per troy ounce.
    The Royal Commission, composed of Newton, John Locke, and Lord Somers,recommends a recall of all old currency, issuance of new specie with gold/silver ratio of 16-to-1.
    The gold price thus established in Great Britain lasted for over 200 years.
    Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."
    Isaac Newton, Master of the London Mint, sets price of gold that lasts for 200 years.
    Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer,natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived." 
    Isaac Newton, Master of the London Mint, sets price of gold that lasts for 200 years.
      1744 A.D. The resurgence of gold mining in Russia begins withthe discovery of a quartz outcrop in Ekaterinburg.
     First Gold mining in Russia-1757--- Пётр 1 [Интернет]--- Ерофей Марков [Интернет]
    Peter the Great the Tsardom of Russia.  
    1787 A.D. First U.S. gold coin is struck by Ephraim Brasher, a goldsmith.
      1792 A.D. The Coinage Act places the United States on a bimetallic silver-gold standard, and defines the U.S. dollar as equivalent to 24.75 grains of fine gold and
      371.25 grains of fine silver.
      1799 A.D. A 17-pound gold nugget is found in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, the first documented gold discovery in the United States.
      1803 A.D. Gold is discovered at Little Meadow Creek, North Carolina, sparking the first U.S. gold rush.
      1804 A.D. -1828 A.D. North Carolina supplies all the domestic gold coined by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia for currency.
      1816 A.D. Great Britain officially ties the pound to a specific quantity of gold at which British currency is convertible.
      1817 A.D. Britain introduces the Sovereign, a small gold coin valued at one pound sterling
      1837 A.D. The weight of gold in the U.S. dollar is lessened to 23.22 grains so that one fine troy ounce of gold is valued at $20.67.
      1848 A.D. John Marshall finds flakes of gold while building a sawmill for John Sutter near Sacramento, California, triggering the California Gold Rush and hastening the settlement of the American West.
      1850 A.D. Edward Hammong Hargraves, returning to Australia from California, predicts he will find gold in his home country in one week. He discovered gold in New South Wales
      1859 A.D. Comstock lode of gold and silver is struck in Nevada.
      1862 A.D. Latin Monetary Union is established setting fineness, weight, size, and denomination of silver and gold coins of France, Italy, Belgium and Switzerlandand obligating all to accept eachother"s
    current gold and silver coins as full legal .
      1868 A.D. George Harrison, while digging up stones to build a house, discovers gold in South Africa - since then,the source of nearly 40% of all gold ever mined.
      1873 A.D. As a result of ongoing revisions to minting andbcoinage laws, silver is eliminated as a standard of value an unofficial gold standard.
      1887 A.D. A British patent is issued to John Steward MacArthur for the cyanidation process for recovering gold from ore. The process results in a doubling of world gold output over the next twenty years.
      1896 A.D. William Jennings Bryan delivers his famous "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic national convention, urging a return to bimetallism.
    The speech gains him the party"s presidential nomination, but he loses in the general election to William
      1898 A.D. Two prospectors discover gold while fishing in Klondike, Alaska, spawning the la st gold rush of the centure.
      1900 A.D. The Gold Standard Act places the United States officially on the gold standard, committing the United States to maintain a fixed exchange rate in relation to other countries on the gold standard.
      1903 A.D. The Engelhard Corporation introduces an organic medium to print gold on surfaces. First used for decoration, the medium becomes the foundation for microcircuit printing technology.
      1913 A.D. Federal Reserve Act specifies that Federal Reserve Notes be backed 40% in gold. 1914 A.D. -1919 A.D. A strict gold standard is suspended by several countries, including United States and Great Britain , during World War I.
      1925 A.D. Great Britain returns to a gold bullion standard, with currency redeemable for 400-ounce gold bullion bars but no circulation of gold coins.
      1927 A.D. An extensive medical study conducted in France proves gold to be valuable in the treatment of rheumatoid arthrist.
      1931 A.D. Great Britain abandons the gold bullion standard.
      1933 A.D. To alleviate the banking panic, President Franklin D. Roosevelt prohibits private holdings of all gold coins, bullion, and certificates.
      1934 A.D. The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 gives the government the permanent title to all monetary gold and halts the minting of gold coins.
    It also allows gold certificates to be held only by the Federal Reserve Banks, putting the U.S. on a limited gold bullion standard, under which redemption in gold is restricted to dollars held by foreign central banks
    and licensed private users. President Roosevelt reduces the dollar by increasing the price of gold to $35 per ounce.  
      President Roosevelt Born January 30, 1882, in New York, Franklin D. Roosevelt became the 32nd president in 1933, and was the only president to be elected four times.
    Roosevelt led the United States through the Great Depression and World War II, and greatly expanded the powers of the federal government through a series of programs and reforms known as the New Deal. He died in 1945.
      1935 A.D. Western Electric Alloy #1 (69% gold, 25% silver, 6% platinum) finds universal use in all switching contacts for AT&T telecommunications equipment.
      1937 A.D. The bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky, is opened.
      1942 A.D. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issues a presidential edict closing all U.S. gold mines.
    Bretton Woods [Аброл Кахаров]
      1944 A.D. The Bretton Woods agreement, ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1945, establishes a gold exchange standard and two new international organizations, the
      International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
    The new standard involves setting par values for currencies in terms of gold and the obligation of member countries to convert foreign official holdings of their currencies into gold at these par values.
    Delegates attend the Bretton Woods conference in July of 1944 at the Mt. Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire Alfred Eisenstaedt / Time & Life Pictures / Getty
      1945 A.D. Gold-backing of Federal Reserve Notes is reduced by 25.5%
      1947 A.D. The first transistor is assembled at AT&T Bell Laboratories. The device uses gold contacts pressed into a germanium surface.
      1954 A.D. London gold market, closed early in World War II, reopens.
      1960 A.D. AT&T Bell Laboratories is granted the first patent for the invention of the laser.
    The device uses carefully positioned gold-coated mirrors to maximize infrared reflection into the lasing crystal.
    The European Rheumatism Council confirms intravenously administered gold is an effective treatment for arthritis.
      1961 A.D. Americans are forbidden to own gold abroad as well as at home. The central banks of Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, West Germany, the United Kingdom and the US form the London Gold
      Pool and agree to buy and sell at $35.0875 per ounce.
      1965 A.D. Col. Edward White makes the first space walk during the Gemini IV mission, using a gold-coated visor to protect his eyes from direct sunlight.
    Gold-coated visors remain a standard safety feature for astronaut excursions.
      1967 A.D. South Africa produces the first Krugerrand. This 1- ounce bullion coin becomes a favorite of individual investors around the world.
      1968 A.D. London Gold Market closes for two weeks after a sudden surge in the demand for gold.
    The governors of the central banks in the gold pool announce they will no longer buy and sell gold in the private market.
    A two-tier pricing system emerges: official transactions between monetary authorities are to be conducted at an unchanged
      price of $35 per fine troy ounce, and other transactions are to be conducted at a fluctuating free-market price.U.S. Mint terminates policy of buying gold from and selling gold to those licensed by the U.S.
    Treasury to hold gold. Gold-backing of Federal Reserve Notes is eliminated.Intel introduces a microchip with 1,024 transistors interconnected with invisibly small gold circuits.
      Yes! Gold Mining In Uzbekistan 1969 Sharaf Rashidov XXIII  [Аброл Кахаров]
      1969 A.D. Gold Mining - Muruntau opened in the Kyzyl-Kum desert of Uzbekistan.
    The mine is still worked as an open pit now nearly 4km (2.5 miles) long, over 2.5km (1.55 miles) wide, and nearly 400 metres (1,300 feet) deep.
    1970 [Интернет]
      1970 A.D. The charge-coupled device is invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories.
      First used to record the faint light from stars, the device, which uses gold to collect the electrons generated by light,eventually is used in hundreds of civilian.  
      1971 A.D. On August 15, U.S. terminates all gold sales or purchases, thereby ending conversion of foreign officially held dollars into gold; in December, under the Smithsonian
    Agreement signed in Washington, U.S. devalues the dollar by raising the official dollar price of gold to $38 per fine troy ounce.
      1973 A.D. On February 13, U.S. devalues the dollar again and announces it will raise the official dollar price of gold to $42.22 per fine troy ounce. Dollar-selling continues, and finally all currencies are allowed to "float" freely, without regard to the price of gold.
      By June, the market price in London has risen to more than $120 per ounce. Japan lifts prohibition on imports of gold.
      1974 A.D. Americans permitted to own gold, other than just jewelry, as of December31
      1975 A.D. The U.S. Treasury holds a series of auctions at which is accepts bids for gold in the form of 400-ounce bars. In January, 754,000 troy ounces are sold and another
      1976 A.D. - 1980 A.D. IMF sells one-third of its gold holdings, 25 million
      troy ounces to IMF members at SDR 35/ounce in proportion to members" shares of quotas on August 31, 1975, and 25 million troy ounces at a series of public auctions for the benefit of developing member countries.
      1978 A.D. - 1980 A.D. U.S. sells 15.8 million troy ounces of gold to strengthen the U.S. trade balance.
      1978 A.D. Amended IMF articles are adopted, abolishing the official IMF price of gold, gold convertibility and maintenance of gold value obligatinated as a significant instrument in IMF transactions with members; and the IMF is empowered to dispose of its large gold holdings.
      1978 A.D. A weak U.S. dollar propels interest in gold, aided by such events as the U.S.
       recognition of Communist China, events in Iran and Sino-Vietnamese border
      disturbances. U.S. Congress passes the American Arts Gold Medallion Act, representing the first official issue of a gold piece for sale to individuals in almost half a century.
      1979 A.D. The Canadian 1-ounce Maple Leaf is introduced. 1980 [Интернет]
      1981 A.D. Treasury Secretary Donald Regan announces the formation of a Gold Commission "to assess and make recommendations with regard to the policy of the U.S. government concerning the role of gold in domestic
      and international monetary systems. "The first space shuttle is launched, using gold-coatedimpellers in its liquid hydrogen fuel pump.
      1982 A.D. Congress passes Olympic Commemorative Coin Act, which includes issuing the first legal tender U.S. Gold coin since 1933.
      1982 A.D. U.S. Gold Commission report recommends no new monetary role for gold, but supports a U.S. Gold bullion coin.
    New gold deposits are discovered in North America and Australia. Canada introduces the fractional Maple Leaf coins in sizes of 1/4 ounce and 1/10 ounce. China introduces the Panda bullion coin.
      1986 A.D. The first new gold jewelry alloy this century, 990 - Gold (1% titanium) is introduced to meet the need for an improved durability of 99% pure gold
      traditionally manufactured in Hong Kong. The very malleable alloy is easily worked into intricate design, but can be converted into a hard, durable alloy by
      simply heating it in an oven. The American Eagle Gold Bullion Coin is introduced by the U.S. Mint. Treasury resumes purchases of newly mined gold.Goldcorp Australia issues the Nugget gold bullion .
      1987 A.D. British Royal Mint introduces the Britannia Gold Bullion Coin. World stock markets suffer sharp reversal on October 19; volatile investment markets increase gold trading activity.
    The World Gold Council is established to sustain and develop demand for the end uses of gold. 
      1988 A.D. The international media report huge gold purchases by a "mystery" buyer, later reveled to be the Japanese government in preparation for the minting of a major commemorative coin.
    This coin, honoring the sixtieth anniversary of Emperor Hirohito"s reign, is issued in November.
      1989 A.D. Austria introduces the Philharmoniker bullion coin.
    1990 [Интернет]
      1990 A.D. United States becomes the world"s second largest gold producing nation.  
      1992 A.D. World Gold Council introduces the Gold Mark as an international identification mark for gold jewelry.
      1993 A.D. Germany lifts its value added tax restrictions on financial gold, causing a resurgence of private demand of gold. India and Turkey liberalize their gold markets.
      1994 A.D. Russia formally establishes a domestic gold market.
      1996 A.D. The Mars Global Surveyor is launched with an onboard gold-coated parabolic telescope-mirror that will generate a detailed map of the entire Martian surface over a two-year period.
      1997 A.D. Congress passes Taxpayers Relief Act, allowing US Individual Retirement Account holders to buy gold bullion coins and bars for their accounts as long as they are of a fineness equal to, or exceeding, 99.5% percent gold.
     1999 A.D. The Euro, a pan-European currency, is introduced, backed by a new European Central Bank holding 15% of its reserves in gold.
    2000 [Интернет]
      2000 A.D. Astronomers at the Keck Observatory in Hawaii use the giant gold-coated mirrors of the most detailed images of Neptune and Uranus ever captured.
      2002 A.D. The Gold Institute"s Board of Directors votes to dissolve the association and consolidate its activities within the National Mining Association, effective
    2011 [Интернет]
      January 1, 2003. The decision was made against the backdrop of consolidation in the gold sector and changes in the general business climate.
    Добыча золота [Abrol Kakharov]
    Изменение цен на золото с 1968 года [Аброл Кахаров]
       Геология и горное дело. Mining and Geology.
      Gold occurs in many geologic settings of which three are the most important.
      "Epithermal" gold deposits are basically hydrothermal veins associated with
      subduction zone volcanoes.
      The epithermal means that the gold-bearing veins were emplaced at shallow depths (less than a few km underground) and have been exposed by erosion.
      As the name implies, "mesothermal" gold deposits were emplaced at greater
      depths and thus deeper erosion is needed to expose them.
      The deposits are associated with "granite-greenstone belts".
      Unlike these two kinds of quartz vein deposits, the third common kind of gold
      deposit is sedimentary.
      "Placer" deposits consist of particulate gold laid down in stream and beach sands.
      The gold comes initially from vein deposits that then follow the rock cycle(weathering, erosion, transportation, deposition).
    Mining investors face the challenge of deciding which company to invest in based on their multiple international projects because of the varying nature of reporting standards worldwide.
    With the current boom in the mining industry, companies tend to prepare reports for investors, based on the eventual stock exchange for which they want the listing.
      There are many resource/reserve codes worldwide namely:
    JORC CODE - Joint Ore Reserve Committee (Australasia)
    SAMREC CODE - South African Mineral Commission.
    REPORTING CODE - (UK / Western Europe)
    CIM GUIDELINES (NI43-101) - Canadian Institute of Mining. (Canada)
      SME GUIDE - Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (USA)
    RUSSIAN CODE (Former USSR) - A, B, C1, C2, (P = P1, P2, P3)
      While Mineral Resources can be estimated based on predominantly geoscientific information, Mineral Reserves are dependent on the consideration of modifying factors such as mining,
    metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social, and governmental factors.
    Such Mineral Reserve estimation will, therefore, require the knowledge of a variety of disciplines.
    Mineral Reserves can only be estimated based on Indicated or Measured Resources. In Figure 1, the double-headed arrows indicate that resources can be converted into reserves, and vice versa, between the categories shown.
    The dashed line between Measured Mineral Resources and Probable Mineral Reserves indicates that this conversion is possible in situations where the collective effect of the modifying factors
    provide uncertainties which would not permit the Measured Mineral Resources to be converted into Proved Mineral Reserves.
    It does not indicate a reduction of geological confidence. It follows, also, that an Indicated Mineral Resource could never be converted directly (ie. without first being upgraded to Measured Mineral Resources)
    to a Proved Mineral Reserve since there would not be the requisite level of geological confidence.
      The Competent Person must choose, and is the only person permitted to choose, the appropriate classification category.
    Depending on the reporting jurisdiction, there will be different reporting requirements and the Competent Person must be aware of these existing differences.
    While these differences may not always be material differences, they are important for proper reporting in the various jurisdictions.
      Classifications of resources/reserves
    Категория запасов [Аброл Кахаров]What is this? [Abrol Kakharov]
      Measured "...can be estimated with a high level of confidence. ... The locations are spaced closely enough to confirm geological and grade continuity."
       Indicated "...can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. ...
      The locations are too widely or inappropriately spaced to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enoughInferred
    "...can be estimated with a low level of confidence. ... inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified geological and/or grade continuity.
    It is based on information ..... which is limited or of uncertain quality and reliability."  
      Система подсчёта запасов ГКЗ СССР подразделяются на следующие каегории:
      Запасы А - детально разведанные запасы. Рудные тела и месторождение оконтурены. Качество и количество руд, условия разработки определены достоверно.
    Месторождение пересечено канавами, скважинами и /или/ подземными выработками. Данные разведки гарантируют надежность проектируемой разработки;
       Запасы B - достаточно детально разведанные запасы. Месторождение и основная часть рудных тел оконтурены. Качество и количество руд, условия разработки определены в деталях.
    Месторождение пересечено канавами, скважинами или подземными выработками. Данные разведки в значительной мере гарантируют надежность проектируемой разработки;
      Запасы C1 - разведанные по редкой сети запасы. Контуры месторождения и рудных тел интерпретируются надежно. Эта категория также включает смежные с залежами категорий А и В запасы.
    Количество руды определено по установленным средним параметрам достаточно точно. Качество руд и условия разработки определены экспериментальными исследованиями и по аналогии.
    Месторождение пересечено канавами, скважинами или подземными выработками.
    Данная категория запасов применяется для проектирования рудников на месторождениях с очень сложным строением и невыдержанным характером распределения оруднения, на которых сгущение сети не целесообразно
      Запасы C2 - предварительно оцененные запасы. Контуры рудных тел определены главным образом экстраполяцией в пределах известных геологических структур и в смежном с залежами категорий А, В, С1 пространстве.
    Количество и качество руд определено по ограниченным данным и может быть принято по экспериментальным исследованиям. Рудные зоны и тела не всегда пересечены на полную мощность канавами, единичными скважинами или подземными выработками.
    Запасы категории С2 требуют доразведки и могут быть использованы только для проектирования разведочно-эксплуатационных предприятий;
      Rесурсы P1 - вероятные, предварительно оцененные ресурсы. Контуры рудных зон экстраполируются по рудоносным геологическим структурам и в смежном с разведанными залежами пространстве.
    Количество и качество руд определено по ограниченным данным. Рудоносные зоны не всегда пересечены на полную мощность канавами, единичными скважинами или подземными выработками
    Ресурсы категории Р1 - основной источник прироста запасов;
       Ресурсы P2 - предполагаемые ресурсы. Перспективные рудопроявления или рудоносные зона интерпретируются по геологическим структурам, характеризующимся наличием поисковых признаков. Ресурсы категории Р2 базируются на геофизических, геохимических пересечений;
      Ресурсы P3 - потенциальные ресурсы.
    Прогнозы, основанные на теоретических построениях, металлогеническом, структурно-геологическом анализе и интерпретации региональных геохимических и геофизических данных классифицируются как ресурсы категории P3.
    Западные инвесторы в расчет принимают только запасы категорий A, B, C1 и C2, которым имеются эквиваленты в зарубежной классификации Классификация JORC, легко сопоставляется с категориями A, B и C1.
      Для этих категорий установлены все технические параметры и выполнены экономические расчеты, достаточные для начала разработки месторождений Запасы категории C2 в примыкающих блоках можно использовать в расчетах,
    как потенциал прироста промышленных запасов. На участках, в пределах которых нет объекта с запасами категорий А, В и С1, запасы категории С2 могут соответствовать только обозначенным или даже выведенным ресурсам,
    обозначенными и выведенными ресурсами, так как их разработка в настоящий момент является заведомо экономически нерентабельной. Категория запасов, как "Забалансовые запасы" не могут быть сопоставимы.
    Сравнение методов подсчёта запасов золота [Аброл Кахаров]
    Соответствие российской (СССР) и зарубежной систем классификаций ГКЗ СССР
      Mining process Open-pit mining is a kind of surface mining. Mining companies choose this way to get rocks and minerals out of the ground because it is the easiest and cheapest way to do it.
    Open-pit mining is only used if the rocks or minerals are close to the surface of the land or if a normal tunnel-type of mine isn'tpossible.
    Hard rock mining is a kind of underground mining. With this kind, an opening is made that is called an adit.
    Система вскрытия [А. Кахаров]
      Tunnels into the ground are dug, blasted with dynamite, or drilled out. These tunnels are called shafts.
    Shafts are dug straight down [vertically] into the ground. One shaft might be for miners to use to go in and out of the mine.
    Another shaft is used for air or ventilation. Drift mines are a form of underground mining.
    This kind of mining is done when the rock or mineral is on the side of a mountain.
    This makes it an easy, cheaper way to mine.Whenever possible, the opening to the mine will be dug a little lower than the rock or mineral vein.
    This makes it easier to get the materials out because gravity helps move them downhill. The tunnels that are dug are horizontal and are called drifts.
    Shaft mining is the deepest form of underground mining. Underground mining is chosen when the rock or mineral is too far to reach using surfase mining.
    Shaft mining is the kind of mine that you usually see in movies where the miner travels straight down into a deep, dark tunnel (shaft) until he reaches the bottom.
      The shaft mine has a vertical manshaft, a tunnel where the men travel up and down in an elevator. Slope mines are another kind of underground mine.
    Система разработки [А. Кахаров]
    With slope mines, the gold or minerals are far enough under ground that surface mining can"t reach it. It is called a slope mine because the shafts are slanted. This kind of mining is done when there would be problems drilling shafts straight down. Slope mines are not usually too deep.
      Extraction of gold
      Gravity Concentration Methods A common method of extracting gold from ore requires crushing the rock and then sifting it through sluices, jigs, spirals and tables. The crushed rock may be soaked with water, and the rock and gold then sent through a series of shakers and sifters. Gold is heavier than most materials and gets trapped in the bottom of these sifters. This is the lowest cost method of obtaining the gold, but may leave a fair portion of gold in the rocks themselves.
      Flotation Process
      Crushed gold ore has a high concentration of sulfides. Miners will make a slurry of the crushed ore, add oil and mix with air bubbles. Sulfides do not become wet easily and so float to the surface for skimming along with the gold. The type of oil depends on the type of sulfides then processed so the gold precipitates out of the solution in a large, shallow tank.
    Heap Cyanide Process
      A less efficient way of extracting ore than the cyanide mill is the heap cyanide leaching process. The gold ore is placed on a liner and the cyanide solution is sprinkled on the gold ore. The gold leaches through the ore and is channeled to a man-made pond for holding and precipitation.
      Bioleaching extraction This process involves the oxidation of sulfide, ferrous, and sometimes carbon containing minerals in order to liberate the gold trapped within.
      Recovery gold from ores or concentrat through the use of livng organizms. This is much cleaner than the traditional heap liaching using cyanide. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover
      Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, As, Sn, Ni, Mo, Ag, and Co.
      Pyrite leaching (FeS2): In the first step, disulfide is spontaneously oxidized to thiosulfate by ferric iron (Fe3+), which in turn is reduced to give ferrous iron (Fe2+):
      The net products of the reaction are soluble ferrous sulfate and sulfuric acid. The process for copper is very similar, Chalcopyrite leaching.
    The Dry Technology Process
    Сухое обогащение [Аброл Кахаров]
      Advantages the dry enrichment technology for gold mining industry: Ecologically clean and safe (without using of water and chemicals);
    All the dry complex of machines and equipment occupies small working space. So, it can be placed directly in the bowels (quarries, mines);
    The dry complex can be easily moved from one place to another;It considerably reducing transportation costs for the mining industry by enriching the "tails" (wastes) at the place of their "production";
      Gold smeltingAmalgamation [Abrol Kakharov]
    Metallurgical process used to separate metal from ore, rocks that contain gold.
    The ore is ground and treated with chemicals to remove some impurities before being heated at high temperatures with a flux that triggers a chemical reaction, causing the metal to precipitate out of the mixture.
    After gold has been smelted, it needs to be refined to purify it so it can be used in production of a variety of products, from jewelry to electronic components.
    Sustainable development Strategies for sustainable development of the small-scale gold mining industry.
    In a typical small-scale gold mining operation where rock is mined, the ore is excavated manually and reduction is carried out using a combination of jaw and rocker crushers, hammer, disc and stamp mills.
    The stamp mills and rockers are manually while the others are powered by diesel or electricity.
    Production of gold by the small-scale sector has led to significant socioeconomy impact on individuals and communities involved in the small-scale mining activity
    and an increase in the overall production of the minerals in the country leading to increased foreign exchange earnings.
    The increase in mineral production has been at a cost to the environment and some communities have had an adverse environmental impact.
    Tailings of Gold Mining are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction.
    The extraction of minerals from ore can be done two ways: placer mining, which uses water and gravity to extract the valuable minerals, or hard rock mining, which uses pulverization of rock, then chemicals.
    In the latter, the extraction of minerals from ore requires that the ore be ground into fine particles, so tailings are typically small and range from the size of a grain of sand to a few micrometres.
    Mine tailings are usually produced from the mill in slurry form (a mixture of fine mineral particles.
    CYANIDE MANAGEMENT IN THE GOLD INDUSTRY Ангренский золотодобывающий рудник (АЗДР) [Аброл Кахаров]
    Cyanidation process Cyanide Mill Process. A very efficient method of gold extraction is dissolving the crushed gold ore in a weak cyanide solution.
    Gold dissolves in cyanide in special tanks, where the solution is mixed and aerated. The cyanide solution is
    Гидрометаллургия золота [А. Кахаров]
    Цианистая технология [Интернет]
    4Au + 8CN + O2 + 2H2O = 4Au(CN)2 + 4OH
    The cyanide leaching process, introduced to the gold-mining industry about 120 years ago, was at the forefront of the technological revolution in the industry.
    The cyanidation process, which was cheap and very efficient, allowed ever lower-grade ores to be processed economically, even in the era of gold price fixing at the US$35/oz standard.
    . CURRENT TREATMENT Today, in most mining jurisdictions around the world, cyanidation plant tailings must be treated with chemical oxidants on the site of the metallurgical operations, and cyanide
    (as well as most metals) has to be removed from solution to very low levels, before deposition in tailings dams or any other such storage facilities.
    The best alternative is to recover cyanide from the tailings and recycle it to leaching.
      The Mining Act has used the term "abandoned" to describe sites where the proponent has ceased or suspended indefinitely advanced exploration, mining, or mine production on the site, without rehabilitating the site.
    Other terms commonly used in the mining industry include: inactive mine, orphaned mine, and unattended mine. The term "orphaned" mine has been used by some to describe sites without an owner.
    Sites described as "temporarily shut down" or "under care and maintenance" would imply that an owner is still actively managing the site.
    In choosing a definition, the important point is the need to focus on public safety and environment problems, not on who owns the site.
    The term "abandoned" mine, as defined above, seems to best serve this purpose of this report.
      Past Producer "Davidor Mine"
    PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.33 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Star of the East Mine"
      HISTORY: 1903-1907: PRODUCTION:Gold Recovered Grade-0.14 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Gilmour Mine"
      HISTORY: Circa 1909: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.06 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer Cook Mine
    HISTORY: 1901-1902: PRODUCTION: Gold Ore Recovered Grade-0.5 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Deloro Mine".
    HISTORY: Prior to 1871: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.26.
    Some gold was produced prior to 1884 . In addition, 2,112 tons of arsenic was produced
      Past Producer "Gatling Five Acre Mine"
    HISTORY: 1899-1903: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.38ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Pearce Mine".
    HISTORY: Circa 1893: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-1.26 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Sovereign Mine". HISTORY: 1866-1878: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.19 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer Craig Mine. HISTORY: 1896: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered GradeYear 0.13 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Cordova Mine". HISTORY: Circa 1890: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.19 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Produser "New Golden Rose Mine"
    HISTORY: 1897: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.32
      Past Producer "Bousquet and McMillan Mines" HISTORY: 1909-1916: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.26 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Tionaga (Smith-Thorne) Mine" PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.35
      Past Producer "Joburke Mine"
    HISTORY: 1946-1947: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.09 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Renabie Mine" HISTORY: 1939: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade- 0.12
      Past Producer "Ronda Mine". HISTORY: 1912: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.11.
      Past Producer "McMillan Mine" HISTORY: Circa 1910: 1920-1926: 1934-1937 PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade 0.18 ounce of Au per ton
    Past Producer "Jerome Mine" HISTORY: 1939-1945: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade 0.17
      Past Producer "Crystal Mine". HISTORY: 1892-1908:1897-1898,1908: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.53 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Ashley Mine". HISTORY: 1932-1936: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.32 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Gold Hill Mine" HISTORY: 1927-1929: PRODUCTION: Gold Recovered Grade-0.14 ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Queenston Mine". HISTORY: 1928: (amount unknown).
      Past Producer"Upper Canada Mine"
      HISTORY: Early 1920s-1938: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.3ounce of Au per ton
      Past Producer "Morris Kirkland Mine" HISTORY: Circa 1922: 1936-1938: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Copper Recovered Grade-0.13
      Past Producer "Omega Mine" HISTORY: 1914: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.13
      Past Producer "Barry Hollinger Mine". HISTORY: 1917-1918: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.26 1918 ounce of Au per ton-0.26
    Past Producer "Golden Gate Mine". HISTORY: 1908-1912: PRODUCTION: Gold SilverRecovered Grade -0.07 ounce of Au per ton
    Past Producer "Kirkland Lake Gold Mine". HISTORY: 1911: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.37ounce of Au per ton
    Past Producer "Tyranite Mine" HISTORY: 1930-1939: PRODUCTION: Gold Silver Recovered Grade-0.14 - ounce of Au per ton
    The prefeasibility report on development "VENUS MINE"Photo Venus mine [Интернет]
      Gold and silver mining Venus Mine have been popular in the area on Tagish Lake since 1905.
    The Venus mine and tailings pond are located approximately 22 kilometres south of Carcross on the South Klondike Highway in Yukon.
    The tailings from the Venus Mine are located below the mine site, some distance from the mill.
    There are many minerals still in the tailings, arsenic being of greatest concern. Arsenic levels in the water and vegetation continue to be measured on a regular basis.
    The good news is the reclamation solution is working! Arsenic tested in the surrounding vegetation has been reduced to trace amounts. In two years, the arsenic levels have been reduced by 150 times.
      1.Introduction The given feasibility report is executed by the professor Abrol Kaharov under the task coordinated with the owner of deposit Ron Berdahl, during the period of August 15, 2004 -January 15, 2005.
      2.The purpose of research consists in definition of economic efficiency of an opportunity of gold deposit "Venus Mine" development in view of technical requirements of mineral resources development in defined conditions and a modern economic situation in the market of base metals and gold in the world.As a basis of the analysis and evaluations have been accepted the reserve calculations carried out in 1967-1985 and submitted by the prospecting organization.
      3.During the work the geological information, reporting data of Mining Recorder's Office (Mayo, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory) were used as official materials. Authors express the gratitude and thank the Chief Geologist of the Yukon Government Mike Burke and Ron Berdahl for the help during studying of the data of the deposit and others in Territory Yukon, and also for valuable advice during the compiling of the feasibility report.
    History of mining on gold deposit "Venus Mine" Yukon Territory. The end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century have been marked by the gold fever in Yukon after discovery of rich placer gold deposits by gold diggers in Klondike and Bonanza rivers near small town of Dawson City. As well known since 1898 the registered gold miners had been carrying out prospecting and extraction of gold from 239 gold-bearing rivers and streams. During this period called "Gold Fever" alongside with known Yukon placer gold deposits, many deposits of nonferrous metals and gold began to be involved in prospecting and mining. At the same time, the north end of the Venus Vein system was staked in Sep/01 by J.M. Pooley, A.B. Palmer & J.M. Stewart as Venus, Uranus, etc. (3768) and was transferred in 1905 to Conrad Cons ML, which explored with at least 914 m of drifting from four adits and three shafts and constructed a 460 m aerial tramway and a 91 tone mill, at a total cost of over $750 000 between 1905-12. The claims were taken to lease in 1912 by Yukon District Gold Mg CL. About 1830 tones were mined, mostly from the Venus 2 claim, but only a small portion was milled due to poor recoveries. The remainder was hand sorted and shipped directly to smelters at Ladysmith and Tacoma. Lessees, mainly Lackinaw and Tagish ML in 1916 and Can Harper Mg Corp Land Montana-Yukon Mg CL in 1920, shipped 1556 tones of high grade ore worth $120 000 and 03 tones of concentrate worth $26 000, according to report. Brown estimated in 1963 that 2450 tones averaging 21.9 g/t Au and 2338.2 g/t Ag were shipped between 1910 and 1920. The south end of the main Venus vein, plus the Red Deer and Humper veins, were mostly staked in 1904-06 and were known as the Dail-Fleming group. These were optioned by the Anglo-American Cons C from 1906-08, by Conrad Cons ML briefly in 1908, and by Caribou Mg CL in 1917. They were explored with at least five adits and three shafts. In 1922, Maybell MC put in a 975 m adit on the Maybelle fraction adjoining the Venus Mine. In 1928, Yukon Gold Co acquired the Venus Extension, the Ray cl (19024) and Peggy cl (19023) but did little work. Except for examination by Treadwell Yukon ML in1919, Hollinger in 1922, Yukon Gold ML in 1929, Transcontinental Res L in 1946-47 and Giant Yellowknife in 1963, the property was idle until 1966. Between 1940 and 1960, the property was consolidated by the Tagish Lake Synd, which sold it in 1966 to Venus ML. Venus built a road from Carcross, completed 2059 m of drifting, 387.7 m of raising and 2191.8 m of u.g. drilling from two adit levels (2700 ft and 2600ft). Production commenced in Sep/70 and by Jun/71, when the mine was closed because of poor recoveries (68% Au, 79% Ag, 84% Pb & 73% Zn) and heavy losses, the mill had treated 58 900 tonnes grading 5.8 g/t Au, 181.7 g/t Ag, 3.7% Pb and 2.5% Zn. The Tagish Lake Synd property was optioned in 1979 by United Keno Hill ML, which added GHI in April, resampled the underground workings, drove 295 m of crosscuts off the 2600 Level and drilled 27 holes (1378 m) below the level later in the year. Between Oct/80 and Oct/81, about $9 million was spent on construction of a new 91 tonne/day mill, 10 km south of the adit, but production was deferred because of low metal prices. Exploration in 1984 consisted of 324 m of drifting, plus two raises (193 m) on the 2850 Level and 108.5 m of sublevel drifting from the raises. In addition, 9 diamond drill holes (1430 m) and 31 rotary holes (2819 m) explored the Venus and Uranus Vein systems on surface . Modern fringe staking includes Mars to the north in Sep/64 by Peso Silver ML; Gold in Mar/74 by D. Waugh; Columbia in May/75 by B. Fitch; Red in Jul/77 by R. Piercy; & Rainbow & Sandpiper to the north in Aug/87 byJ.B. O'Neill & R. Hilker. A feasibility study on remediation of the mine tailings was planned in summer 1994 under the Federal Arctic Environmental Strategy. In the summer of 1995 the tailings were partially dug up and then sealed in a clay liner. In Aug/95 Raindrop were tansferred in trust to the Carcross First Nation as partial settlement of their land claim. In Jul/97 J. O'Neilstaked Venus fraction adjacent to the occurrence. In Sep/97 B.Scott staked Au 2.5 km to the north.
    3.Geology of deposit "Venus Mine" Most of the development has been on the main Venus vein, a north-trending, shallowly westdipping, quartz fissure vein system which cuts intermediate volcanic rocks of Cretaceous age.
    The vein has been traced for more than 1.6 km on surface along a steep mountainside overlooking Tagish Lake.
    Fourteen other veins are present but most have not been explored. The 2700 adit is located 760 m southwest of the original mine on the Venus #2 claim, while the 2600 adit is 365 m northeast of the 2700 adit.
    The Red Deer vein is located farther uphill to the west, and strikes more northeasterly, whereas the Humper Vein is situated at the south end and strikes easterly.
    The Venus vein, which is the strongest structure on the property, ranges from about 8 cm to 2.4 m wide (average 0.9 m) and is surrounded by an alteration envelope up to 3 m wide.
    Mineralization consists of coarsely crystalline quartz and carbonate carrying irregular bands and pods of pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena and sphalerite with minor tetrahedrite and chalcopyrite.
    Mineralization on the other two veins was reportedly similar in composition but narrower and less abundant.
    In the mine, two types of faults cut the vein: weak normal and reverse faults that strike normal to the vein, and strong faults that trend almost parallel and cause the vein to roll, pinch and swell.
    Most mineralization is concentrated in swells associated with the strong faults.
    Twelve ore shoots ranging in length from 14 to 42 m were sampled by Venus ML and gave an average grade of 13.4 g/t Au, 396.0 g/t Ag, 2.6% Pb, 1.7% Zn & 0.09% Cd across a minimum width of 1.2 m.
    At the start of production, ore reserves were calculated at 68 466 tonnes proven and 53 865 tonnes probable.
    After the mine closed, remaining reserves were recalculated as 54 364 tonnes proven and 16 017 tonnes probable averaging 9.26 g/t Au, 247 g/t Ag, 2.1% Pb and 1.4% Zn across a 1.5 m mining width.
    Operational problems were blamed on insufficient cutting of high assays, dilution caused by the flat dip, and poor gold recoveries from arsenopyrite because the cyanide circuit never reached full operation.
    Resampling and further exploration drifting and drilling by United Keno Hill Mines Ltd extended mineralization to 170 m below the 2 600 level and led to the calculation of new reserve figures in Jun/80.
    These figures indicated proven reserves of 54 354 tonnes, probable reserves of 16 017 tonnes and indicated reserves of 38 329 tonnes, grading 7.55 g/t Au, 226.3 g/t Ag, 1.89% Pb and 1.37% Zn.
    The 1984 work on the Venus Vein increased proven reserves to 61 689 tonnes grading 10.98 g/t Au, 305.14 g/t Ag, 2.5% Pb and 1.5% Zn.
    These figures do notinclude 12 156 tonnes of ore grading 5.83 g/t Au, 147.43 g/t Ag, 1.3% Pb and 0.7% Zn stockpiled at the Venus mill site.
    The 1984 drilling on the Uranus Vein outlined a zone 50 m long averaging 3.8 g/t Au, 870.8 g/t Ag, 5.7% Pb and 2.6% Zn across 1.5 m.
    Gold occurs with galena primarily as fracture fillings in arsenopyrite. Steeply dipping ore shoots, which are not visually apparent, comprise 20% of the veins and typically contain both types of mineralization.
    The wallrocks are altered to a sericitecarbonate-quartz-pyrite assemblage with local pods of intense clay alteration.
    A rare hydrous arsenite of iron and calcium was identified here in 1913 by Tyrrell Graham and named Yukonite.
      The feasibility report for gold deposits"Venus Mine
    "The Goal: to define the basic directions of development and technical parameters of processing, parameters of economic efficiency of 1st line of a mine.
    The reserves of gold, silver, lead and zinc in Venus Mine deposit as in 1984 is:
    1. Reserves of ore - 61 689 tons.
    2. The average grade of gold in ore - 10.98 g/t
    3. The average grade of silver in ore - 305.14 g/t
    4. The average grade of lead in ore - 2.5 %.
    5. The average grade of zinc in ore - 1.5 %
    Also the data from previously made Feasibility Study and Project Base Study on Venus Mine deposit have been analyzed and taken into consideration. Volume of ore previously extracted and stockpiled in the area is accounted:
    1. Reserves of ore - 12 156 tons.
    2. The average grade of gold in ore - 5.83 g/t
    3. The average grade of silver in ore - 147.43 g/t.
    4. The average grade of lead in ore - 1.3 %.
    5The average grade of zinc in ore - 0.7 %
      Without going in details of the analysis of practice and Feasibility Study of Venus Mine in the past, it is necessary to note that estimated economic parameters of the project efficiency appeared today
    unsuitable because of noticeable change of world market prices of gold and base metals, and also practice of primary development of the deposit,
    revealed high degrading of ores during excavation and low recovery of gold with high losses into tailings during processing.
    Also were problematic qualitative-quantity properties of arsenic in ore and concentrates. These and other production-economics indices of work practice were the reason for a cessation of work on this mine.
    In the given work when compiling the production-economics project are considered: reliability of the grade of gold in the calculated blocks, actual volumes of degraded ores, applications of new methods
    of enrichment and extraction of gold and other associated components, and also that is especially important provides measures for the guarantee of an environment safety from arsenic and other hazard impurities.
    In connection with complication of processing technology and the raised necessity of preservation measures of the environment authors of the project have made recalculation of ore reserves of the deposit
    with clearly defined changes toward increases of standards of the grade of gold and thickness of the ore body.
    As a result in initial development blocks: 250203, 260026, 260216, 265205, 265222, 270044, a part of the block 270700, 280002, 280028, 280050, 280051, 280052, 280202, 280250, 285700, 285002,
    285003, 285005, 285200, 285211 with dominating parameters of the total cost of commodities are accepted.
    The project of the deposit development expects initial upgrade of already excavated ore and then involving in processing ores from blocks with the following parameters:
    1. Reserves of ore - 7 268 tons.
    2. The average grade of gold in ore - 10.8 g/t
    3. The average grade of silver in ore - 236 g/t
    4. The average grade of lead in ore - 1.9 %.
    5. The average grade of zinc in ore - 0.9 %
    . Perspective reserves within the limits of developed ore field are estimated 21 950 tons with the average grade of gold 6.7 g/t and silver of 228.0 g/t.
    Development and exploitation scheme of Venus Mine deposit. Venus Mine is underground mine. Development of the deposit is carried out by connected adits on several horizons.
    Based upon mining conditions of the deposit a system of development by the open chamber with shallow blast-hole explosion is accepted.
    Drilling is carried out bymanual and telescopic boring machines. Timbering is used wooden. Detonation is fiery or electric with use of standard explosives for underground work in Canada (dynamite).  
      Haulage of ore to be made by self-propelled machine. Ventilation is basically natural with application of local fans. An operating regime in one shift daily with detonation at the end of workday. Drainage is self-flowing.
    Transportation of ore. Ore from the underground mine is delivered on gold-producing factory by dump trucks of 10 ton load capacity. A loading bunkers of 20 tons are equipped at the mouths of the adits.
    Gold-producing factory and tailings dump.
    The complex gold-upgrading and gold-producing manufacture will consist a platform for reception and stocking of 100-150 tons of ore, the reception bunker with a feeder on 10-15 tons,
    two crushers of regular and fine crushing (100 x 35 and 70 x 20) with of 2.0 tons per hour, the intermediate bunker on 10 tons with a feeder and a ball mill with productivity of 2.0 tons per hour.
      The upgrading part will consist a jigging machine with area 0.5 square meters, concentrating and finishing tables, three flotation machines with volume of chambers of 1.0-1.2 cubic meter, one installation for a filtration
    and capacities for concentrates storage. The gold-producing part is equipped according to the project and will consist tanks and pumping devices with a set of special toolkit and chemicals for bio-hydrometallurgy.
    The complex is provided with equipment for purification and neutralizations of process water.
    The1st stage of the tailings dump in volume of 10,000 m³ is covered with a special film and furnished with KNOW-HOW devices for the closed cycle of water use.
    Calculation of technical and economic parameters of deposit Venus Mine.
    . A)Mining 1. Reserves of ore as a subject to development - 7,268 tons. 2. The average grade of gold in ore - 10.8 g/t 3. Volume of the extracted ore - 8,721 tons 4. The average grade of gold in the extracted ore - 8.64 g/t 5. The average grade of silver in the extracted ore - 188.8 g/t 6. The average grade of lead in the extracted ore - 1.52 % 7. The average grade of zinc in the extracted ore - 0.72 %. B)Processing
    . 1. Processing of ore - 8,721 tons. 2. Gold in a concentrate - 67.04 kg. 3. Silver in a concentrate - 987.6 kg 4. Lead in a concentrate - 106.0 tons. 5. Zinc in a concentrate - 50.16 tons.
    . Calculations are executed taking into account possible losses during underground excavation, increase in the degrading of ore due to the catching up of wallrocks and somedecrease in the extraction of metals during the upgrading enrichment due to repeated flotation of concentrates. The optimum ratio of the grade of metals in the concentrate and the processing losses during the repeated flotation will be determined during use of the new technologies, provided by the project.
    . 1. Processing of ore - 12,156 tons. 2. Gold in a concentrate - 60.23 kg. 3. Silver in a concentrate - 1075 kg. 4. Lead in a concentrate - 158.0 tons, Zinc in a concentrate - 68.0 tons D) Total 20,877 tons of ore will be processed with production:
    . 1. Gold in a concentrate - 127.27 kg. 2. Silver in a concentrate - 2062.6 kg. 3. Lead in a concentrate - 264.0 tons. 4. Zinc in a concentrate -118.16 tons.
     The schedule diagram of deposit 
      The FIRST YEAR:
    1. Cartographic-geodetic survey of the territory of mine area and concentrating plant.
    2. Sampling of ore excavated in the past and outcrops of ore bodies.
    3. Bulk sampling of two representative samples and forwarding them for integrated technological tests in the research centers of Canada and Uzbekistan.
    4. Visit of mine and data collection for the design of underground mining operations
    The SECOND YEAR: 1. Delivery and installation of the processing equipment (April-May) 2.Processing of ore - 3,000 tons 3. Clearing of underground mines and drilling of prospecting boreholes 4. Delivery of concentrates onto processing plant (smelter) and testing of bio-hydrometallurgical method of gold extraction
    The THIRD YEAR: 1. Processing of ore - 4,000 tons 2. Drilling of prospecting
    The FOURTH YEAR: 1. Processing of ore - 4,000 tons 2. Drilling and prospecting
    The FIFTH YEAR: 1. Excavation of ore - 4,000 tons 2. Processing of ore - 5,000 tons 3. Drilling of prospecting boreholes
    1.Excavation of ore - 5,000 tons
    2. Processing of ore - 5,000 tons 3. Drilling of prospecting boreholes. The given above calculations show that the first production will be received during the same season
    when the machinery is purchased and processing equipment is installed.
    The next purchase of equipment for the underground mining will be realized from the profit of the first four years of work.
    Final product and its transportation Final product is collective flotation and gravy concentrates with the grade of gold 60-240 g/t, silver 150-250 g/t, lead 20-30 %, zinc - 10-15 %.
    The gravy concentrates, received from the jigs, after passing the finishing cycle are stored separately in the special packing.
    Flotation concentrates after basic and additional flotation, after passing the filtration cycle also are prepared for the delivery in the special packing.
    The transportation of concentrates to the plants will be provided by the combined transport: automobile, railway and sea, depending on delivery.
    11. Conclusions Submitted technical and economic calculation and a substantiation of Venus Mine development show the economic feasibility of the organization of processing and excavation of ore in limited quantities
    up to 21 thousand tons with production of gold - 127.27 kg, silver - 2060.6 kg, lead - 264.0 tons, zinc - 118.16 tons in the form of gravy and flotation concentrates for further processing at the metallurgical plant (smelter).
    2. In connection with the fact that the cost of equipment will be paid back in short terms, it is possible to involve in development blocks with the lower grade of metals with an increase in the mine"s lifetime and gaining an additional profit.
    3. Planned annual volume of geological drilling will promote a complete evaluation of deposit, discovery and increase of new reserves for development.
    4. Factors of risk and measure of the guarantee of profitable work of the enterprise. Analysis shows that the factors of risk can be:
    a) High degrading of ore during the excavation and the low recovery of the basic and associated components during the processing. As the protection measures the necessary volume of the ground and underground prospecting works is planned, allowing a transfer of the existing reserves into the higher category.
    b) The offered technology of ore processing, obtaining the integrated concentrates and KNOW-HOW will allow to reach the higher results of recovery at the processing plant (smelter) with the sufficiently high concentration of metals in the concentrat. c)Entry of the increased content of arsenic into the technology of excavation and processing is possible. The bio-hydro-metallurgical method of concentrates processing is planned at the factory. d) The situations, connected with the natural disasters and other circumstances, for which the development and the mine production must be insured properly in accordance with established procedure.
      The Pre-feasibility report development "Thompson mine" Thomson mine [Интернет]
    Geographic and economic situation. The abandoned gold mining "Thompson - Landmark" is located near the eponymous lake, 48 km northeast of Yellowknife, the Northwest Territories of Canada.
    The history of the study and development. Discovered in 1938. In the 1940s, uncovered the underground mine workings to a depth of ~ 300 m. Passed two operating mines, an exploratory shaft (hole) depth of 50 m, bored ~ 1,000 m exploratory holes . Additional research in 1978 - 1987's., ~ 3000 m were drilled exploratory holes, selected by the gross mass of 6 tons technology test sample
    GEOLOGICAL The ore field is composed of cordierite and quartz-mica shale formations "Burwash" Archean. The structure of the ore field is determined by tight folds and joints which have spread 320 - 330 º. Available data are interpreted by previous researchers as the presence of an overturned anticline, castle of which plunges gently to the southeast. All of the known ore bodies are controlled by disjunctive structures ("shear zones"), sub-parallel axial planes of these folds. To date, 11 known ore bodies, of which at least 5 have a significant length - from 50 to 300 m. The ore body "Kim" traced for 800 m along strike. The ore bodies are quartz vein zone, less common veins ranging from a few centimeters to 3 m. The composition of the veins: quartz, tourmaline, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena. The total content of sulfides to 2%. Marked accumulation of galena, where its content reaches few percent. Gold in ores free, of various sizes. In the area of ceiling "Trail" marked nuggets weighing up to 1.5 g and up to 1 cm. Produced 133 989 tones of ore with an average gold content of 16.3 g / t. 13. RESERVE 1.3 Retrieved 2188 kg of gold and 428 kg of silver. Gold resources in the category "Indicated" are 461 kg s / c = 6.36 g / t. Gold resources in the category "Inferred" up to 1095 kg / s = 9.33 g / t. All these resources are concentrated in areas "Kim" and "Fraser". According to information published in 1988 by "Ardic Exploration", on the results of its drilling within the zone "Kim" revealed two new ore column, increase resources amounted to 1.7 tons of gold at an average grade of 9.3 g / t. 14.
    FUTURE FACILITY The above resources "Indicated" concentrated mainly in the ceiling areas of pillars "Kim" and "Fraser", resources category "Inferred" - within the zones "Kim" and "Trail".
    The results of operations of the company "Ardic Exploration" demonstrate the possibility of a substantial increase in resources during a large scale how exploration by tracing the known ore bodies along strike and at depth.
    The object is characterized by favorable geographic and economic situation, its proximity to Yellowknife with developed infrastructure.
    The structure of the ore field and the presence of numerous ore bodies and mineralization of the high points (a few tens of g/t) and concentrations of numerous occurrences of visible gold
    indicate a high probability of identifying new small reserves of ore (up to 100 000 tones), but the rich (10-20 g / t) ore bodies.
    The most promising sites are interlocking parts of anticlines, folds and bends of hinge zone of intersection of their faults. In these areas may identify "blind" ore bodies.
    It"s necessary to conduct evaluation activities within the zones Arsenic, Croesus, B-vein and Lahti, and further exploration within the zones Fraser, Kim (deep levels) and the Trail.
    Substantial potential for growthstocks is to apply the methods of testing and processing of samples.
    large gold ore. They include: drilling of a dense network (in the areas of detail - 25 × 25 m) for the localization of ore columns, drilling of exploratory wells of larger diameter (HQ), selection of trench samples weighing 10 - 15 kg,
    trench selection of samples, sample processing scheme with preliminary extraction of a large gold (screen analysis, or washing in a centrifugal concentrator).
    All of the known ore bodies can be partially worked out from the surface to a depth 10 m.
    Project considers involves conducting fully automated sewage extraction using self-propelled equipment (drilling carriages and Scooptrams on sites with a capacity of ore bodies greater than 3.0 m
    and maintaining sewage treatment semi-mechanics excavation using hand-held telescope and drills and LHDs in areas with lower power of the ore bodies .
    Transport across a broken ore and waste rock backfill material is self-propelled wheel with diesel equipment.
    The use of tailings as a bookmark out space leads to a smaller negative impact on the environment and the significant reduction of disturbed lands.
    Thus, the condition will be reduced maintenance, increased volume of the ore mass, and therefore stocks.
    According to available information, ore is easy to enrichable, gold is free, large, low sulphide content. One might expect that the extraction of the gravitational enrichment is not less than 90%.
    Currently, gold-field "Thomson - Lundmark" should be considered as a promising subject for exploration.
    A relatively small amount of work carried out within 1-2 years, can yield growth stocks in 2 - 5 tons of gold at an average grade of the ores of 10-15g
    CONCEPT DEVELOPMENTVenus Mine [Аброл Кахаров]
    . It is assumed the combined mining of the deposit of ore bodies: - Open pit of the upper parts of ore bodies to a depth of 20 m from the surface of the slotted careers.
    Selective mechanized underground mining below the 20 m from the surface of sublevel drifts way from laying out space dehydrated tails mill. The main technical solutions to ensure effective development of the facility:
    1. The application of technologies of selective extraction treatment plant.
    2. Quality management of drilling and blasting technology with contouring Explosives;
    3. Application of a range of self-propelled small-sized LHD mining equipment.
    4. Shift method of method of work.
    5. Ore processing and gold recovery method stages-intense gravity, thus avoiding the costs that accompany the organization the heap leaching of ores
    6.Ore processing mill on a modular high factory readiness, complete with enrichment equipment from the leading companies in the world, ensuring maximum effectiveness of the schemes of enrichment.
    7. The minimum amount of construction work, used in the construction of buildings.
    8. Maximum mechanization and automation of all processes.
     9. Minimal impact on the environment.
     10. Minimum number of staff.
     11. Intensive exploration work to increase mineral resources mining company. The duration of the mine on the basis of the known resource identified by Taylor's formula T = 0,2 × B0, 2, where B - ore reserves, mln. tons. Based on the amount of resources by category "Inferred" and "Indicated" 0,19 million. tons, the duration of the mining enterprise on the basis of these resources will be 4.2 years.
    Annual production will then reach 40 - 50 thousand tons by E. Vellmer.
    Overview The deposit is characterized by the following key indicators:
    1. Capacity of the ore bodies - from 0.5 to 4 m.
    2. The angle of incidence - 45 .
    3. The ores are quartz veins and vein zones.
    4. Host rocks - quartz-mica schist.
    5. The ore is not prone to caking, disintegration and spontaneous combustion.
    6. Ores and rocks are characterized by moderate fracturing. Assumed organization of surface and underground mining sites.
    UNDERGROUND MINING Performance of the underground mining site must provide 80% - load module ore processing plant capacity of 5 t / h gold ore (30 000 t / year),
    as well as mining and tunneling preparatory and rifled workings (30% of the ore-mining). The overall productivity of the underground mining area - 40 000 t / year.
    SURFACE MINING Performance of the surface mining site should provide 20%-load module ore plant capacity of 5 t/h gold ore (10 000 tons/year), as well as mining and tunneling development workings(30% of the ore-mining).
    The overall performance of the surface mining area - 15 000 t / year. project adopted a year-round operation. Number of shifts per day - 2, operating hours - 12 hours.
     Underground Mining Site For mining purpose it will be provides underground mining layer method or sublevel caving. It is envisaged sinking spiral ways to maximum depths of processing and the subsequent opening of the ore bodies field drifts. Given the relatively small length of the ore body, expected mining of each ore body by a spiral way, providing, by safety, the possibility of staff at the surface is produced by running two penetrations of the rising mines.
      16.4.2.The total number of spiral ways are in the number of ore bodies - 2; ride rising 4. The total volume of mining-capital work - 17 000 m3 / 45 000 t.
    Operating losses during extraction will consist of ore losses in the array at the contacts with the host rocks and ore losses from occurring at its loading and transport.
    Dilution will occur as a result of host rock stuck in breaking the ore on account of low capacity of the ore bodies.
    Geometrical parameters are defined mines adopted the scheme of processing and mining equipment and parameters given in the table.
      For mining and tunneling of capital developments and mining complex will be used by small equipment manufacturing company "Sandvik Mining and Construction", designed to work in tight spaces at small size mining ore bodies.
    Blast hole - portable punches, loading and delivery of mining and ore mass - Scooptrams SANDVIK LH201; transport ore to the surface - dump SANDVIK TH315.
    To meet the challenges of underground mining intended to be used in underground mine rig SANDVIK DE110, and from the surface - SANDVIK DE140.
    The general scheme of works for the underground mining area is as follows:
    1. Manufacturing Mining and capital works (spiral revolt, the approach crosscut).
    2. Drifting sublevel drifts.
    3. Drilling holes fenders.
    4. Breaking ore.
    5. Loading of ore in the dump.
    6. Hauling ore to the lodge on the surface.
    7. Delivery of backfill material.
    8. Bookmark gob mines.
    Average parameters of the operating unit based on the adopted technology as follows:-Length - up to 100 m - The vertical height - 25 m - Height substages - 12.5 m - Average power of the ore body, - 1.2 m - Height excavation of 1.5
    Cutter capacity is determined by the minimum width of LHD equipment.
    Dilution in this case is 40%. Specific volume set-threaded workings for 1000 tons of ore - 70 m.
    The average ore reserve within one bloc- 20 000t of ore mass length delivery on the roadway LHD 100-150 m.
    The surface area Provides for open pit surface areas to a depth of pits 20 m. Mining of the ore bodies - by split trenches. The total volume of mining-capital work - 30 000 m3.
    Operating losses during extraction will consist of ore losses in the array at the contacts with the host rocks and ore losses from occurring at its loading and transport.
    Dilution will occur as a result of host rock stuck in breaking the ore on account of low capacity of the ore bodies.
    Blast hole drilling - compact self-propelled drilling rig Sandvik DX500;
    excavation of rock chipped from the face bulldozer CAT D6, loading by a front loader, transportation of rock from the quarry - dump capacity of 15-20 tons
    The general scheme of works for the underground mining area is as follows:
     Trenching and sampling of outcrops and natural clearings planned after the snow and
     defrost the active layer. Layout trims will be done visually on the ground by geologist on the mine site.Estimated volume of exploration work to be completed during the summer season before the snow coverage.
       Core samples from the wells will be delivered by small truck 4 × 4 to the base for the geological records.
      Documented core be tested by cutting a diamond circular saw into 2 parts. One part will be supplied to the sample, the other to remain in the core samples as a duplicate of the boxes. Weight of core samples are 4-5kg.
      Samples will be transported to the laboratory for processing and analysis.
      Processing of the results will be after the finished of field work.
      Geological and technical staff, except for the drilling crew will work on site the entire season without rotaion.
      This will reduce the cost of transporting personnel during the summer season.
    Members of the drilling crew in accordance with the terms of the Contractor will be rotated every 6 weeks.
    To transport personnel and cargo samples will be provided using a helicopter or seaplane.
    Perhaps, the Сontractor will involved for the total field of geological work, from number of local exploration companies engaged in such work.
    We don"t know the price for services of such companies at this stage, so the budget for geological work will be taken the same as listed above.
    The list of equipment and materials, as well as the calculation of the approximate cost to implement the plan of exploration
    The cost of implementation of planned volume of drilling 3000 meters are determined on the basis of proposals received from the company Foraco Drilling Ltd, which has an office in Yellowknife.
    The cost of drilling one meter in diameter HQ is $ 130 for 1 meter. Given the additional costs as provided under the contract (basis of core boxes, well survey),
    the cost per meter we accept as 200 USD per meter, so the total cost of drilling planned volumes is 600 000USD. According to the proposal from Foraco Drilling Ltd all of the drilling crew can complete within 1.5-2 months.
       The samples from the holes will be delivered by pick-up 4 × 4 on the base for the geological records. The documented samples will be cut by the diamond circular saw into 2 parts. One part will be supplied to the sample, the other to remain in the drill core
      boxes as a duplicate.
       Weight of core samples of 4-5 kg, Samples will be transported to the laboratory for processing and analysis. Processing of the results will be conducted after the field work.Work on the sample preparation
    will be carried out on their own during the drilling. Laboratory samples will be transported to the laboratory for the accumulation of the party required for delivery.
    Expenses of analytical assays of 4,000 samples × 20 USD = 80 000USD. The calculation was based on the average value of the analytical samples in the laboratory of SGS, including delivery of samples to the laboratory.
    It will also need to technological research on bulk samples to develop a scheme of ore processing and gold recovery. The cost of the study is approximately 55 000 USD. Results of laboratory studies are planned to cost $ 130 000 USD. The following table summarizes the projected costs of exploration during the first stage:
       Due to the breakdown of exploration stage on the summer and winter periods, the financing of the works will also be carried out in accordance with the schedule of activities, namely:
      1. Summer field season (spring-summer 2012) - costs USD660 000
    2. Drilling operations and analysis (winter 2012-13 period) - USD800 000
      The integrated evaluation of investment in the construction of mining and processing enterprise on the basis of the reserves is based on the performance of analog projects
    and model projects and data manufacturers (equipment), as amended by the conditions of the region. We use as a model project the report "Development of group.
      This paper contains the technical and economic calculations of development of small (up to 3 tons of gold) gold deposits, including the main parameters (geological, mining engineering, technological, economic).
    The cost of basic equipment approved according to figures provided by the company "Sandvik" - one of the world's largest manufacturers of mining equipment
    Costs in the construction of utility-auxiliary and service purpose are defined in terms of their share in total costing, according to project-analogues.
       Capital expenditure
    Calculation of capital costs are for the following:
    . 1. Direct costs; 2. Indirect costs; 3. Unexpected costs;
    Direct costs include the costs of construction of the main production facilities (group 1) and auxiliary and service purpose (II group).
    The group 1 include the objects - an underground mine and a mill complex. The expenses of the underground mine are mining and capital works, purchase of mining equipment, and equipment of the surface complex.
    The cost of mill complex includes the cost of the mill modular capacity of 5 - 7 tons / hour, including the parts of large crushing and tailings. The cost of a modular mill plant is estimated at about 1 million USD.
    Indirect costs are, by definition, represent costs associated with implementation of the construction company. To estimate the indirect costs of an empirical set of (Chainikov, Lapin, 2008) we use the ratio: - Installation of equipment - 15 -25% - Laying of pipelines and other communications - 5 -10% Construction of buildings of Mill - 15 - 35% -Construction of auxiliary buildings and structures - 5-15% - Purchase of tools - 5-12% - Design and construction - 10-30% - Contingencies - 0-15%.
    Unforeseen costs, according to project-analogues are accepted at 10% of the amount of direct and indirect costs.
    The estimated capital cost of construction based on the mining reserves of "Thompson - Lundmark" are 9 708,05 thousand USD, including: - Direct costs - 4.645 thousand USD - Indirect costs - 4.180 thousand USD - Unforeseen costs - 882.55 thousand USD
    Operating costs (production costs)
    In accordance with the methodological terms, the cost structure can be identified:- Costs of production;- Depreciation;
      Taxes and fees included in cost of production.Production costs, the place of their appearance and transfer to production costs, in turn, are subdivided into: -Direct(operational) - Departmenta(operational); - General business Other.
    Direct and departmental costs can be defined as the production costs of redistribution.
    The analysis shows that the average percentage of the total costs of redistribution, general and other expenses in the total calculation for small mining enterprises is 75%: 20%: 5%.
    We have taken the size of annual production costs of commodity products, designed for field "Svetloe", located in Susuman district of Magadan region and very similar to the geological and economic parameters
    (gold reserves 3 tons of ore bodies with vein width ~ 1 m, underground mining method, the productivity of mill factory of ore 50 000 t / year) - 90 USD per 1 ton of ore. The cost structure in this case is as follows:
    . -Production - 30%
    . -Processing of ore - 20%
    . -Other expenses - 5%
      But exclude: depreciation and taxes and fees
       Based on the projected capacity of 50 000 t / year, annual operating costs will amount to 4, 50 million USD.
       The cost of exploration in the cost structure laid down at the rate of USD 200 for 1 meter exploratory core drilling.
      With a planned volume of exploration drilling 3,000 m / year on exploration costs will amount to 600 thousand USD.
      In addition to exploration activities should be planned amount of 400 thousand USD per year to carry out sample assaying and laboratory studies.
      Total operating costs and exploration costs will amount to 5, 50 million USD / year.
      Given to the fact that the mine site "Thompson - Lundmark" is located in a much more favorable conditions than the objects of the Central Kolyma region (Far East-North Russia),
    and the productivity is higher in Canada than in Russia, the proposed value of operating costs has the necessary "flexibility" and the margin of safety.
      This assumption is supported by a number of the tables below, where the main indicators of change such as the price of gold and the cost of operating costs (direct costs) to extract and recycle 1 ton of ore.
    The price of gold varies from $1200 per ounce to $1800 (in increments of $200), and the cost of the direct costs varies from $90 per ton to $150 per ton (in increments of $20).
    The following table shows the main technical and economic parameters of the project at the price of gold per ounce in 1200 dollars (at the cost of direct costs - 90 dollars per ton):
      As mentioned above the main indicators are used with price of gold as 1400 USD per oz. and the cost of direct operation as 90 USD per ton.
    The simple payback of the project is 4.0 years since its implementation, internal rate of return of 41%.
    The total discounted profit for the period of production 7,850 million USD.
    A relatively small amount of work carried out within 1-2 years, can yield growth stocks in 2 - 5 tons of gold at an average grade of the ores 10-15g/t.
      Zero Waste Definition "Zero Waste is a goal that is ethical, economical, efficient and visionary, to guide people in changing their lifestyles and practices to emulate sustainable natural cycles,
    where all discarded materials are designed to become resources for others to use.
    Безотходная технология [Аброл Кахаров]
    Хозрасчёт [Аброл Кахаров]
    Zero Waste means designing and managing products and processes to systematically avoid and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them.
    Implementing Zero Waste will eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that are a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health."This is the goal we are striving for.
    Measures of success in meeting this goal are outlined in the Zero Waste Business Principles and the Global Principles for Zero Waste Communities.
    Businesses and communities that achieve over 90% diversion of waste from landfills and incinerators are considered to be successful in achieving Zero Waste, or darn closed
    Economic Cost Terms Экономические термины стоимости
      Costs can have different meanings in the field of economics.
      Costs are categorized to assess separate aspects of production. У затрат могут быть различные значения в области экономики. Затраты категоризированы, чтобы оценить отдельные аспекты производства.
    Opportunity Cost Альтернативные издержки
    Economists are often asked to calculate the "opportunity cost" of a plan.
    Экономистов часто просят вычислить "альтернативные издержки" плана.
    Average Cost Средняя стоимость
    The average cost is calculated by taking the total cost of producing the goods and dividing it by the number of units produced.
    Средняя стоимость вычислена, путём деления общей стоимости произведённых товаров на число произведенных единиц.
      Marginal Cost Предельная стоимость
    Marginal Cost is differs from the average cost, which attributes the same price for every unit along the production line.
    Предельная стоимость отличается от средней стоимости, которая приписывает ту же самую цену за каждую единицу вдоль поточной линии.
    Fixed Cost Фиксированные расходы
    The fixed cost is an expense that does not change (in the short-run) regardless of how many units are produced. Фиксированные расходы - расход, который не изменяется независимо от того, сколько единиц произведено.
    Variable Costs Переменные издержки.
    A variable cost is an expense tied directly to the cost of producing a good.
    Переменные издержки - расходы, связанные с издержками производства
    Calculating profit is an important business skill.
    Вычисление прибыли является важным деловым умением
      Total Revenues Общие доходы
      Total revenues can include proceeds from direct sales, or any other transaction that results in a material or financial benefit.
      Общие доходы могут включать поступления от прямых продаж, или любой другой сделки, которая приводит к материальной или финансовой выгоде.
      Total Expenses Полные расходы
      Total Cost in Economics Вычисление общую стоимость в экономике
      Total cost is an economic term that refers to the sum of all costs, including the fixed costs and variable costs.
    Общая стоимость - экономический термин, который относится к сумме всех затрат, включая фиксированные расходы и переменные издержки.
    Variable expenses are amortization, work, raw materials, an electricity and other expenses
    Переменные издержки - на амортизацию, зарплату , сырьё, элекроэнергию и другое.
    Экономические понятия: Revenue, Income, Profit, Gains, Returns and Earnings могут означать 'Прибыль' или 'Доход' в зависимости от контекста.
    Три из перечисленных выше терминов: Revenue, Income и Profit относятся к основной деятельности
    Revenue для производственной компании есть выручка от основной деятельности, т.е. цена одной единицы продукции, умноженная на количество проданных единиц товара.
    После вычесления из revenue (валовую прибыль) gross profit, получится показатель, называемый income from operations, или 'доход от основной деятельности'.
    Если добавить сюда все остальные доходы (other income, или non-operating income), не связанные с основной деятельностью и отнимем непроизводственные расходы, в том числе общие и административные, амортизацию и налоги, то получим чистую прибыль, или net profit.
    Income - это любой доход, как от основной, так и от прочей деятельности. Income всегда связан с денежными потоками (cash flows) Income может быть net и gross.
    Gross income - это валовые доходы от одной или нескольких категорий.
    Net income - это валовые доходы минус расходы.
    Profit - это 'сухой остаток'. Net profit мы получим после вычета всех видов расходов. При переводе, profit всегда переводится 'прибыль', а income всегда переводите 'доход'.
    Gains по-русски тоже называют прибылью. Антоним gains - это losses, (учёт потерь)
    Returns. Это связано с инвестициями. По-русски return on investment могут называть 'доходностью инвестиций', 'доходом от инвестиций' или 'прибылью на капиталовложения'.
    Earnings - Cвязано с распределением прибыли. Когда предприятие получило net profit (чистую прибыль) её распределяют в виде дивидендов (earnings per share, или 'прибыли на акцию),
    либо переводят ее в резерв нераспределенной прибыли в капитале (retained earnings in equity). Либо предприятие может часть прибыли распределить в виде дивидендов (distribute as dividends),
    а оставшуюся часть перевести в нераспределенную прибыль (retained earnings). .
    Gross domestic product (GDP) ВВП (валовой внутренний продукт, или - это совокупная рыночная стоимость всех товаров и услуг, за период. ВВП определяется на государственном уровне (national level)
    Balance of Payments - это разница между экспортом и импортом.
    Consumption (потребление) - это все товары и услуги, приобретенные частными потребителями.
    Investment (инвестиции) - это приобретение (теперь уже и частными потребителями, и организациями) капитальных объектов (capital items): зданий, строительных работ, производственного оборудования
    (plant & equipment), жилой недвижимости (residential property).
    Gold in Canada Gold mines [Интернет]
    Первый рудник в Онтарио [А. Кахаров]
     Gold is found across the Canadian Shield, in British Columbia and Nunavut, and on the
    island of Newfoundland. It was first discovered in Canada in 1823 along the shores of
    the Rivière Chaudière in the Eastern Townships of Québec.
      In 1858, following the famous rushes in California and Australia, gold was discovered in the sands of the Fraser River in the interior of BC, starting the "Cariboo Gold Rush" Almost 40 years later,
    the legendary "Klondike Gold Rush" in the Yukon marked the beginning of one of the most productive periods in Canadian gold-mining history.
       Ontario's first gold rush occurred in 1866, near today's town of Madoc. There have been several other gold rushes and mineral discoveries in Ontario since then many of which still produce gold.
     The early 1900s saw the establishment of several major gold-mining camps in northern Ontario, including Porcupine, Temmins, Larder Lake, Kirkland Lake and Red Lake.
    The Larder Lake area in 1906 was the scene of the first gold rush in northeastern Ontario. Prospectors fanning found gold on the shore of Larder Lake, which became the Kerr Addison mine.
    The gold for the first five dollar gold piece minted in Canada from Canadian gold (issued in 1909) came from the Kerr Addison property.
    Also in 1906, gold was discovered at Swastika 5 km west of Kirkland Lake. In 1911. Bill
    Wright discovered gold at Kirkland Lake.
    Kirkland Lake [А. Кахаров]
    The first gold production in the Kirkland Lake area from the Toburn property was in 1913, from Teck-Hughes in 1917, Lake Shore in 1918, Kirkland Lake Gold in 1919, Wright-Hargreaves in 1921, Sylvanite in 1927, and Macassa in 1933.
    It was not until 1936 that sufficient tonnage of ore was indicated at the site of the original Larder Lake discovery, in what then became known as the Kerr Addison mine, now a past producer.
      Production reached an all-time high of 166 tonnes in 1941 but then declined dramatically because of wartime conditions.
    By 1970 rising production costs had forced the closure of many gold mines in Canada and production dropped to one-third of peak levels.
    Changes in international monetary policies led to a startling increase in gold prices in the late 1970s which, in turn, encouraged increased activity in gold exploration and new mine development.
    The 1981 discovery and subsequent development of the large Hemlo gold deposit in northern Ontario, followed by other discoveries and developments in each of Canada's provinces and territories,
    resulted in increased production and a renewed importance of gold to the Canadian economy.
    Gold production reached nearly 175 tonnes in 1990 and 1997 and 150 tonnes in 2001 before falling in consecutive years to a 22-year low in 2008, at 94.8 tonnes.
    Roughly 90% of Canada's gold production comes from hard-rock underground and open-pit mines.Most production comes from Ontario and Québec.
    GMC [Abrol Kakharov]
  • Комментарии: 78, последний от 25/11/2013.
  • © Copyright Кахаров Аброл (Kakharov2004@mail.ru)
  • Обновлено: 09/08/2014. 133k. Статистика.
  • Статья: Канада
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